2019年01月05日 托福考试解析
冷暖自知 2019-01-08     16:44 来源: 原创
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托福
2019年01月05日 托福考试解析
阅读Passage 1- Costs and Benefits of Dispersal
  题号1-词汇题
  解析:Presumably,假设地= It is reasonable to assume. 有理由假设
  难度1 答案A
  题号2-修辞目的题
  解析:例子是为了具体解释前面的观点,前文讲为了move from one home base to another, 动物必须消耗calories(卡路里),不仅在move的过程中,也要为这个dispersal长出肌肉。也就是说动物迁移时需要cost(代价)的。选B。A说好处多于付出的代价,没提及。C,只有足够健康的才disperse,没提及。D,dispersal和肌肉生一样,需要能量,偏离重点。
  难度2 答案B
  题号3-词汇题
  解析:Pertinent,相关的
  难度1 答案D
  题号4-事实信息题
  解析:雄松鼠travel 150 meter, 雌的是只有50。结合最后一句的问题,why should the males disperse farther than their sisters? 选C,他们移动的模式不一样
  难度2 答案C
  题号5-推断题
  解析:从本段最后两个问题可以推断出,动物dispersal的原因不是那么明显。A,自然中很难观察到,事实上通过松鼠的例子,可知并非如此。C,为了取得更好更多的资源,没提及。D,对于大部分物种没有好处。
  答案B
  题号6-句子简化题
  解析:句子原来意思:当近亲结合,他们的后代更可能得基因病;所以近亲结合(inbreeding)产生的后代更不可能挺过成年期而繁殖下一代。选D。A,以后as a result后的重要信息。B,从not related的parents继承的基因病会导致后果,不对。C,their offspring会挺过成年期,不对。
  难度4 答案D
  题号7-事实信息题
  解析:Enjoy assistance from their mother,从母亲那里得到帮助。
  难度2 答案D
  题号8-事实信息题
  解析:很容易定位,since之后表示原因,说young males have not been seen fighting with older ones around the time of dispersal. 雄性在他们迁移的时候没有和其他的雄性打架,也就说说conflicts这个假设不能完全解释。
  难度2 答案C
  题号9-词汇题
  解析:Subdue,制服,镇压,= defeat
  难度2 答案C
  题号10-事实信息题
  解析:母狮子spend their entire lives close to where they were born, 然而雄狮子会disperse很远,这和松鼠的行为一样。A,被其他的young male逼迫离开,错,是被mature males,成熟的雄性,而不是young males。B,inbreading当然是一个factor,这两段都在讲这个一点。C当新的兄弟姐妹(siblings)出生的时候他们走开,错我,文中说他们是被new mature males赶走的。
  难度3 答案D
  题号11-词汇题
  解析:Coincides with 和…碰巧发生
  难度1 答案B
  题号12-修辞目的题
  解析:前文说到this observation(当新的mature males来的时候,原来的雄狮子就走了)可以支持‘竞争假设’。注意关键词However的转折,但是如果young males没有被驱逐(evicted),他们也会自己走。言下之意,这个理论是有缺陷的,并不是所有的young males都是因为竞争而走的。选B,不能fully account for (充分结束)这个现象。
  难度3 答案B
  题号13-句子插入题
  解析:转折however,是做题的突破。第一句话说,为了避免近亲繁殖,有人肯定会认为雌雄双方可以移动相同的距离。这和要插入的句子形成了对比“但是雌雄双方不用迁徙相同的距离也可以避免”。
  难度3 答案B
阅读Passage 2- The Proto-Indo-European Language
  题号1-事实信息题
  解析:这两种语言同属于Indo-European family, 选D,他们可以被追溯到同一种语言。
  难度2 答案D
  题号2-修辞目的题
  解析:前文见到all this information comes from linguistic reconstructions of their language. 这句话具体解释了语言学家是如何获取这些information的:如果这些语言来自相同的词根,他们就认为Indo-European语言中有这个单词。
  难度2 答案C
  题号3-句子简化题
  解析:原来意思:通过研究每个单词的演变,语言学家可以得出这些单词起源于的最初形式—比如说father这个单词。注意:破折号后是例子的具体解释,不是语意的重心,所以B,D错。B逻辑关系最符合,通过…得出…A逻辑关系是并列and,错。
  难度3 答案B
  题号4-否定事实信息题
  解析:文中P2说raise cattle,A说domesticated (被驯化的),P3说these people may well have been the first to domesticate the horse, A对。B,p2中讲到worshipped a male god, 对。C,P3讲到,lived in or near wooded area, also had many names for birds. D,P2讲到used bows and arrows in battle. 说明他们参加了战争,所以选D。
  难度3 答案A
  题号5-词汇题
  解析:Succeeding 随之而来的,= later
  难度1 答案A
  题号6-否定事实信息题
  解析:D完全没有讲到,其他选项很容易中找到。
  难度2 答案D
  题号7-词汇题
  解析:Advocate 宣称(某一个观点)= argue for
  难度2 答案A
  题号8-修辞目的题
  解析:第一句,both hypothesis have their problem。下面是对之前提及的两个假设的证据上的反驳。Nor…也没有,表示是对第二个假设的反驳。所以选B,to challenge one popular ideas
  难度4 答案B
  题号9-事实信息题
  解析:这种语言是farmer传播的,这样的理论漏洞在哪里。文中说到,Proto-Indo-European 中包含copper,car等单词,这些东西对于the first farmer of Turkey来说是unknown的,说明语言不是他们传播的。B是对这句话的paraphrase。
  难度3 答案C
  题号10-词汇题
  解析:Impose强加= force upon
  难度2 答案C
  题号11-词汇题
  解析:Obscure 模糊的= unclear
  难度2 答案C
  题号12-推断题
  解析:Colonization殖民:modern humans entering a new area introduce their language,人类进去一个地方,传播他们的语言;但是divergence(传播)是语言change over time,随着时间而变化。言下之意,可知它不需要人口的移动,B正确。
  难度4 答案B
  题号13-插入题
  解析:This代词是关键,这解释了他们移动地那么快的方法。它指的是前一句话他们是是第一批驯化马的人。
  难度3 答案B
阅读Passage 3- When Did Life on Earth Originate?
  题号1-词汇题
  解析:Predominate , 占主导地位的= most common最普遍的
  难度2 答案B
  题号2-推断题
  解析:文中说close examination of these modern analogs(类比物)使我们知道stromatolites是如何生长的。所以可知它们之间有相似性,B。
  难度3 答案B
  题号3-词汇题
  解析:Diverse,多样的= varied
  难度1 答案A
  题号4-否定事实信息题
  解析:C和原文相反。文中说海岸是最近才由于海面上升才浸没水下的。不是浮出水面。其他的都可以找到对应。
  难度3 答案C
  题号5-事实信息题
  解析:直接可以找到说life arose long before 3.4 billion years ago。
  难度2 答案D
  题号6-词汇题
  解析:Specific特定的= particular
  难度1 答案D
  题号7-推断题
  解析:首先文中说they were water-deposited,在水下的,后文说biological carbon是由生物产生的,所以结合两点,可知graphite是由生活下水下的生物产生的
  难度4 答案D
  题号8-句子简化题
  解析:原来意思:他们承认同位素分析的结论,但是指出graphite量小,同时这个carbon可能是rock形成后很久才引入的,所以选B:同意,但是认为carbon比岩石年轻(因为后引入)
  难度4 答案B
  题号9-修辞目的题
  解析:看前文,如果我们接受graphite是由很早之前的生物产生的话,这也不是一个特别startling(惊讶)的结论。这句就解释了为什么没有那么惊讶:生命所需的重要化学物质在地球形成的早起就有了,它们有非常多的时间互相反应,产生生物奇怪吗?选D。
  难度4 答案D
  题号10-词汇题
  解析:Inevitable 不可避免的
  难度2 答案C
  题号11-否定事实信息题
  解析:除了C,其他很容易找到
  难度3 答案C
  题号12-事实信息题
  解析:研究表明those that replicate fastest are the most" successful" in taking over the environment,有些分子掌控了环境,就是A所说的dominat(占主导地位)
  难度3 答案A
  题号13-句子插入题
  解析:The finding 指前面的研究发现,然后后文说implication(启示)。发现指的是graphite是源于生物,启示是我们的星球在一开始就有生物了。所以选在C处。
  难度4 答案C
听力-Conversation 1
  题号1-主旨题
  解析:学生在做intern,但是路途远,想开车,但是学校规定the third year才能开车,他想要make an exception,破个例。选A。
  难度3 答案A
  题号2-细节题
  解析:学生说到晚上buses don’t go all the way to the campus,不到学校。
  难度2 答案B
  题号3-推断题
  解析:学校的车上free的,B错。School只能在town接他,A错。Bus在周末也是有的,C错。D,老师说一般都rush hour是学生们下图书馆的时候,男孩使用车的时间不是高峰,人少,会成为first pickup。
  难度4 答案D
  题号4-细节题
  解析:老师说assume他会follow the same syllabus,学生说我会ask her。
  难度3 答案A
  题号5-态度题
  解析:You know I wouldn’t have believed it. I nearly thought that I had to need my car. 难以置信,我以为我一定要用车了。言下之意就是很满意这个解决方案。
  难度5 答案C
听力-Lecture 1
  题号1-主旨题
  解析:文中讲了得知how long water has been underground的方法,知道how long很重要,这样就可以知道地下水被replenish(补充)的时间了,这样的话我们就知道该用多少水,而不至于dry up 地下水。所以说的是分析可持久使用率(sustainable rates)的一种方法,用的是Krypton的同位素追踪法。
  难度4 答案A
  题号2-目的题
  解析:文中讲了得知how long water has been underground的方法,知道how long很重要,这样就可以知道地下水被replenish(补充)的时间了
  难度3 答案C
  题号3-推断题
  解析:因为carbon 14 decay的周期太短了,而水存在的时间远远比这个周期长,所以不能用来检测the age of water
  难度3 答案B
  题号4-细节题
  解析:一个是Krypton一旦进入地下水就不会被更替(replenished);此外相比carbon14,其衰退周期长很多。
  难度4 答案BD
  题号5-目的题
  解析:每一atom对laser beam都有不同的反应,sound wave是作为一个对比的例子,让学生更好理解老师说到的laser beam的技术,为了说明就像声波的共振一样,每一个原子对laser beam也会有一样的反应。
  难度5 答案D
  题号6-态度题
  解析:教授说right now the samples are too small,但是未来会变的更有效。
  难度4 答案C
听力-Lecture 2
  题号1-主旨题
  解析:文中主要讲了vowel-pitch matching
  难度4 答案A
  题号2-目的题
  解析:学生说opera很难听懂,老师说有一个recent study做了这方面的调查。
  难度3 答案A
  题号3-细节题
  解析:声音会在sound track中bounce,你声道的形状大小会决定发出的vowel(元音)。
  难度3 答案B
  题号4-细节题
  解析:文中说为了发音大声,演唱者会张大嘴巴,sacrifice the meaning for the sake of volume. 为了音量牺牲意思。
  难度4 答案D
  题号5-细节题
  解析:文中说这个作曲家的歌剧比较复杂,不像别人那么repetitive;此外都是为大管弦乐队写的。
  难度5 答案AD
  题号6-态度题
  解析:文中说创作者是否伟大看你看说明,Style和story同样重要,所以每个创作者都各有优势。
  难度4 答案B
口语-Task 1-难度3
  题目:Personally, I would like to take the weekend class about how to start my own small business. There are my reasons. First of all, being businessman and start my own business has long been my dream when I was a child. And I think, taking part in such course would definitely give a valuable opportunity to learn some precious lessons and skills about starting my own business, such as communicating skills, interpersonal skills and negotiating skills. Second, Jack Ma, who is the founder and owner of the world largest e-commerce giant my idol, and I really want to be successful as him one day.
口语-Task 2-难度3
  题目:Well, I totally agree with the idea that friends should be able to disagree with each other. Here are my reasons, first I think, you cannot expect anyone has the same idea and perspective with you. It is really understandable that your friends have different ideas, because they are different individuals. For example, I always have different opinions with my best friend Jack, especially when we are discussing our projects. But this kind of positive argument never has bad influence friends on our friendship, instead I learn a lot from him and his ideas inspire me greatly sometimes. Therefore, I agree that even though you have different ideas, you can still be good friends.
口语-Task 3-难度4
  题目:The student is writing a letter to proposed that the information sessions should be canceled because it is not useful at the beginning of the semester, and it is not necessary with the school website. However, in a conversation, the woman disagrees with this proposal. Her first reason is that she learned useful information from the information sessions. For example, she learned about student book fair, where she bought used books, and it saved her a lot of money. Second, she thinks this proposal is not realistic, because most of the students never visit this website, because they don't have the time.
口语-Task 4-难度4
  题目:rational ignorance means that when people are making less important purchases, they would not spend a lot of time doing research and making choices, because they think it isn't worth it. In the lecture, the professor uses his own experience to illustrate this point. When he bought a car, he spent a lot of time doing research on the price and advantages and disadvantages of the car, and finally made his purchase. However, when he was buying batteries for his flashlight, he just grabbed one and paid the money, regardless of their prices and your durations, because they are almost the same. Therefore, that's how rational ignorance influences professors purchases.
口语-Task 5-难度4
  题目:In the conversation, the man has a problem that his film is supposed to invite his prof to make a speech before they show the film The third Man. However, the professor can't come because of family emergency. There are two options for him. The first one is to canceled the film and show it next time. This second option is to give the speech by himself. As far as I am concerned, I would definitely choose the second solution. Here are my reasons. First, I think the club member will be definitely disappointed if the film is got canceled. Any it is hard to pull down all of the posters that has been put on the notice boards.
口语-Task 6-难度5
  题目:In the lecture, the professor talks about two temporary features for the animals to protect themselves. The first feature is camouflage, which can make young animals blend into the environment. For example, baby lions have spotted fur, so that they can hide in the grassland. Therefore, their predator will not see them. The second is to develop some temporary feature to run quickly, so that they can escape from the predators. A typical example for this is a kind of bird living water. The baby birds develop fingers, so that they can climb the trees and bushes when the predators are approaching.
综合写作-难度4
  题目
  In the passage, the author claims that Ocean Cleanup Array is an effective way to collect and remove plastic from ocean and it will less negative impacts on the marine environment. However, in the lecture, the professor points out the possible problems of the cleaning system.
  First, the professor claims that the author undermines the hustle environment of the ocean. Since ocean water has corrosive chemicals, and the current can be fierce, it is very likely that the equipment will be easily damaged and need  to be repaired frequently, which is going to be a large cost. Considering the amount of devices required, the money could be added up. As a result, it will not be cheap solution.
  Second, the professor further challenges the validity of the argument in the passage by saying that although swimming animals can avoid the devices, plankton cannot, because they flow with the currents and once they are drawn to the devices, they will be removed together with the equipment. However, removing large amount of plankton will damage the food chains where planktons are important food for numerous sea animals.
  Third, the professor says that recycling plastics is not as easy as it is sated in the passage, because the plastics will break down into pieces and polyethylene and polypropylene will be mixed together. Therefore, they should be separated first. Also, the ocean organisms attached to the devices should also be cleaned off before the plastic is recycled. Given that, most recycling facilities will refuse to buy the plastics collected in the ocean.
独立写作-难度4
  题目
  样本回答
  立场:不同意
  P1: introduction
  P2:让步,承认分享技术这样的观点有一定的道理。比如技术如果可以自由分享,可以使得发展中或者欠发达地方赶上其他大国发展。同时可以避免一些重复的研究,节省资源和财力。但是很多情况下,事实情况并没有那么理想。
  P3:第一个理由。人们容易忽略的一点是,研究需要投入很大的人力物力财力,如果技术可以轻松获取的话,没有国家会愿意投入研究了,这样反而会导致停滞。
  P3:第二个观点:有些技术是不可以分享的,因为太危险。例子:原子弹技术不能分享给政权不稳定的国家,一旦分享会发生不可估量个后果。
  P5总结:不能分享。
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