2018年12月2日托福阅读机经预测
安之若素 2018-12-05     19:02 来源: 原创
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文章 1
Although social learning (the acquisition of specific behaviors by observing other individuals exhibiting those behaviors ) is well documented among fish, few studies have investigated social learning within a developmental context in these taxa. Rather than investigating the development of a particular skill, Chapman, Ward, and Krause investigated the role of group density during development in later foraging success in laboratory-housed guppies. When raised with a small number of conspecifics (members of the same species), guppies were quicker to locate food by following a trained adult guppy than were guppies raised in large groups. This counterintuitive finding is explained by the fact that guppies reared in the high-density condition were less likely to shoal (swim in a group ) with others and, therefore, were less likely to learn the benefits of social learning. Instead, fish reared in high-density situations may learn that conspecifics are to be viewed as competitors, rather than as potential sources of adaptive information. This finding suggests that at least for guppies, the early social environment may have an effect on the capacity for social learning, if not on the socially learned behaviors themselves.
题目

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. note a flaw in a scientific finding

B. describe a particular scientific study

C. present an interpretation of a finding

D. note a difference between two scientific findings

E. contrast two conditions in which a particular phenomenon has been observed

2. Regarding research on fish, it can be inferred from the passage that

A. research studies of the acquisition of important skills by fish have only recently begun to document the role of conspecifics in the learning process

B. research on social learning in guppies suggests that guppies differ in important ways from most other fish in the means by which they learn particular skills

C. research on social learning in fish has generally focused on the acquisition of skills other than foraging

D. research has established that social learning occurs in some fish species without investigating the development context in which it occurs.

E. research to investigate social learning has been done more extensively on fish than on other aquatic animals.

3. Which of the following can be inferred about the study by Chapman, Ward, and Krause?

A. It was initially designed to investigate something other than social learning.

B. It required researchers to observe individual guppies at multiple points in their life spans.

C. It pointed to the possibility that population density may have little to do with guppies’ social learning.

D. It required the observation of guppies under conditions that closely mimicked the conditions of guppies in the wild.

E. It indicated that guppies gain adaptive information from being reared with a relatively large number of conspecifics.

答案
1.B    2.D   3.D
文章 2
A decrease in face-to-face social contact can precipitate depression. Time spent using the Internet cannot be spent in face-to-face social contact, so psychologists have speculated that sharply increasing Internet use can cause depression. Studies of regular Internet users have found a significantly higher incidence of depression among those who had recently doubled the amount of time they spent using the Internet than among those whose use had not increased. Hence, the psychologists’ speculation is correct.
题目

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. In general, the reason that the people in the studies had doubled their Internet use was not that they had earlier experienced a significant decrease in opportunities for face-to-face social contact.

B. A sharp decrease in face-to-face social contact is the only change in daily activity that can lead to an increased incidence of depression.

C. Using the Internet presents no opportunities for people to increase the amount of face-toface social contact they experienced in their daily lives.

D. Regular Internet users who are depressed will experience an immediate improvement in mood if they sharply decrease the amount of time they spend on the Internet.

E. Before they doubled the time they spent on the Internet, the people who did so were already more prone to depression than are regular Internet users in general.

答案
C
文章 3

As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston's landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.

While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.

题目

1. Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.

2. The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?

A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.

B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.

C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.

D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.

E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.

答案
1. While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales.  2.E
文章 4
Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why some plant communities are more susceptible than others to invasion by nonnative species, results from field studies have been inconsistent and no general theory of invasibility has yet emerged. However, a theory based on fluctuating resource availability could integrate most existing hypotheses and successfully resolve many of the apparently conflicting and ambiguous results of previous studies. The suggested theory is that a plant community becomes more susceptible to invasion whenever there is an increase in the amount of unused resources. The diversity in the range of resource-release mechanisms could partly explain the absence of consistent ecological correlates of invasibility. In particular, the theory predicts that there will be no necessary relationship between the species diversity of a plant community and its susceptibility to invasion, since near-complete exploitation can each occur in both species-rich and species-poor communities. Though Lonsdale found a positive association between species richness and invasion, this may arise from the tendency of diverse plant communities to be nutrient poor and therefore more responsive to the effects of human-caused influxes of nutrients.
题目

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. assessing the empirical success of a theory

B. explaining why no consistent theoretical account of a phenomenon has been possible

C. advocating a potential solution to a theoretical impasse

D. deducing testable predictions from a proposed theory

E. describing the difficulties involved in explaining certain empirical results 

2. It can be inferred that the author would most likely agree with which of the following assessments of the results from field studies

A. Many of the results contradicted predictions of susceptibility to invasion that are based on the availability of resources unused by the community.

B. If fluctuating resource availability were taken into account, many of the apparent inconsistencies among the results could be explained.

C. The apparent inconsistencies and ambiguities in the results are caused by trying to make them fit an inadequate general theory of invasibility.

D. No general theory of invasibility has emerged because none of the studies has been able to assess the degree of an invasion accurately.

E. The results tend to show a degree of susceptibility to invasion that is lower than would be expected given the prevalence in the wild of nonnative species. 

3. According to the author, the theory based on fluctuating resource availability might resolve “apparently conflicting and ambiguous results” because

A. It explains how a particular circumstance can produce disparate effects.

B. It does not assume that all of the results are instances of the phenomenon that the theory is intended to explain.

C. It predicts that seemingly minor variations in research methodology can have a dramatic effect on results.

D. Its account is based on a statistical tendency rather than on the supposition that the results arise from a causal connection.

E. It indicates why a similar outcome may be preceded by very different circumstances on different occasions.

答案
1.C   2.B    3.E    
文章 5

The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today. If surviving copies are few, the stemma perforce brings into proximity manuscripts that were widely separated in time and place of origin. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.

One type of external evidence that may shed light on the transmission of Roman texts is the availability of a work in the Middle Ages, when many classical texts were circulated. Too often, though, too much is inferred about a particular works circulation in the Middle Ages from the number of manuscripts surviving today. When a work survives in a single manuscript copy, editors call the manuscript, rather glamorously, the lone survivor–implying that all its (presumably rare) companions were destroyed sometime early in the Middle Ages by pillaging barbarians. It is equally possible that the work survived far into the Middle Ages in numerous copies in monastic libraries but were unnoticed due to lack of interest. The number of extant manuscripts, however few, really does not allow scholars to infer how many ancient Latin manuscripts of a work survived to the ninth, the twelfth, or even the fifteenth century.

Quotations from a Roman text by a medieval author are another category of external evidence: but does the appearance of a rare word or grammatical construction—or even a short passage —really indicate a medieval author’s firsthand knowledge of this or that ancient work, or does such usage instead derive from some intermediate source, such as a grammar book or a popular style manual? Medieval authors do quote extensively from ancient authors; while such quotations provide some evidence of the works medieval circulation, as well as define its evolving fortunes and the various uses to which it was put, they may be far less useful in reconstructing the text of an ancient work.

Much as scholars want to look for overall patterns and formulate useful generalizations, the transmission of each text is a different story and each manuscripts history is unique. Scholars must be careful not to draw conclusions that go beyond what the evidence can support.

题目

1. The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?

A. tracing certain changes in the methods used to study the transmission of ancient Roman texts.

B. contrasting two types of evidence used in investigating the transmission of ancient Roman texts.

C. outlining certain difficulties associated with studying the transmission of ancient Roman texts.

D. advocating the use of one type of evidence about ancient Roman texts over the use of another type.

E. explaining the development and potential uses and drawbacks of stemma in the study of ancient Roman texts. 

2. As described in the passage, a stemma is most closely analogous to which of the following?

A. a department store inventory list that excludes some departments

B. a map from which a large section has been torn off

C. a chronology that includes only major historical events

D. a family tree in which some generations are not recorded

E. a government organizational chart from which some agencies are omitted  Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

3. In its discussion of external evidence, the passage suggests which of the following about manuscripts of ancient Roman texts during the Middle Ages?

A. It is possible that fewer manuscripts were destroyed by barbarians in the early Middle Ages than scholars frequently suppose.

B. Additional copies of some so-called lone survivor manuscripts may have existed well into the Middle Ages.

C. If an ancient Roman text is quoted in a work by a medieval author, then it is likely that at least one manuscript copy of that text survived into the Middle Ages.  4. Click on the sentence in the first paragraph that suggests that scholars might be led to underestimate the extent of the connection between certain manuscripts.

答案
1.C   2.D  3.AB 4. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.
文章 6

In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft captured data about Jupiters atmosphere—namely, the absence of most of the predicted atmospheric water—that challenged prevailing theories about Jupiters structure. The unexpectedness of this finding fits a larger pattern in which theories about planetary composition and dynamics have failed to predict the realities discovered through space exploration. Instead of normal planets whose composition could be predicted by theory, the planets populating our solar system are unique individuals whose chemical and tectonic identities were created through numerous contingent events. One implication of this is that although the universe undoubtedly holds other planetary systems, the duplication of the sequence that produced our solar system and the development of life on Earth is highly unlikely.

Recently planetary scientists have suggested that the external preconditions for the development of Earth’s biosphere probably included four paramount contingencies. First, a climate conducive to life on Earth depends upon the extraordinarily narrow orbital parameters that define a continuously habitable zone where water can exist in a liquid state. If Earths orbit were only 5 percent smaller than it is, temperatures during the early stages of Earths history would have been high enough to vaporize the oceans. If the Earth-Sun distance were as little as 1 percent larger, runaway glaciation on Earth about 2 billion years ago would have caused the oceans to freeze and remain frozen to this day. Second, Jupiter’s enormous mass prevents most Sun-bound comets from penetrating the inner solar system. It has been estimated that without this shield, Earth would have experienced bombardment by comet-sized impactors a thousand times more frequently than has actually been recorded during geological time. Even if Earth‘s surface were not actually sterilized by this bombardment, it is unlikely that any but the most primitive life-forms could have survived. This suggests that only planetary systems containing both terrestrial planets like Earth and gas giants like Jupiter might be capable of sustaining complex life-forms.

Third, the gravitational shield of the giant outer planets, while highly efficient, must occasionally fail to protect Earth. Paradoxically, while the temperatures required for liquid water exist only in the inner solar system, the key building blocks of life, including water itself, occur primarily beyond the asteroid belt. Thus the evolution of life has depended on a frequency of cometary impacts sufficient to convey water, as well as carbon and nitrogen, from these distant regions of the solar system to Earth while stopping short of an impact magnitude that would destroy the atmosphere and oceans. Finally, Earth’s unique and massive satellite, the Moon, plays a crucial role in stabilizing the obliquity of Earth’s rotational axis, this obliquity creates the terrestrial seasonality so important to the evolution and diversity of life. Mars, in contrast, has a wildly oscillating tilt and chaotic seasonality, while Venus, rotating slowly backward, has virtually no seasonality at all.

题目

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. enumerating conditions that may have been necessary for a particular development

B. outlining the conditions under which scientists may be able to predict certain events

C. explaining how a particular finding affected scientists understanding of a phenomenon

D. suggesting reasons why a particular outcome was more likely to occur than other possible outcomes

E. assessing the relative significance of factors that contributed to a particular occurrence

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the planetary scientists would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the development of complex life forms on Earth?

A. It might have occurred earlier in Earths history if cometary impacts had been less frequent than they were.

B. It could have occurred if Earths orbit were 1 percent larger than it is but not if Earths orbit were 5 percent smaller

C. It probably follows a pattern common on other terrestrial planets that occupy planetary systems containing gas giants.

D. Its dependence on the effect that Jupiters gravitational shield has on Earth was difficult to recognize prior to 1995.

E. It has been contingent on conditions elsewhere in Earths solar system as well as on conditions on Earth itself.

3. The author of the passage most likely mentions Mars oscillating tilt primarily in order to

A. provide evidence for a proposition about the potential effects of cometary impacts

B. emphasize the absence from our solar system of normal planets

C. contrast the rotational axis of Mars with that of Venus

D. characterize the role of other planets in the solar system in earths development

E. emphasize the importance of the Moon to the development of life on Earth 

4. The passage suggests each of the following about water on Earth EXCEPT:

A. It was conveyed to Earth by comets.

B. It appeared on Earth earlier than did carbon and nitrogen.

C. Its existence in a liquid state is contingent on Earths orbital parameters.

D. Much of it came from a part of the solar system where water cannot exist in a liquid state.

E. It is unlikely that there would be much of it available to support life if the gravitational shield of the outer planets did not limit the frequency with which comets strike Earth.

答案
1.A   2.E  3.E   4.B
文章 7

Received feminist wisdom has conceived of history as a male enclave devoid of woman subjects and practitioners, particularly before the twentieth century. As Ann For Freedom put it in 1972, from Herodout’s to Will Durant’s histories, the main characters, the main viewpoints and interests, have all been male. Feminist accounts of the 1970s and 1980s viewed historiography (the writing of history) as overwhelmingly his, coining the term herstory and presenting it as a compensatory feminist practice. Herstory designated women’s place at the center of an alternative narrative of past events. Rosalind Miles’s description restates the popular view: Women’s history by contrast has only just begun to invent itself. Males gained entry to the business of recording, defining and interpreting events in the third millennium B.C.; for women, this process did not even begin until the nineteenth century. The herstorical method provided a means for feminist historians to explore materials by and about women that had previously been neglected or ignored. Herstory promoted curricular transformation in schools and was used as a slogan on T-shirts, pencils, and buttons. Exposing historians tacit and intentional sexism, herstorians set out to correct the record–to show that women had held up half the historical sky.

Despite the great scholarly gains made behind the rallying cry, herstory’s popular myth– particularly about the lack of women who have recorded history–require revision. Herstory may accurately describe feminists efforts to construct female- centered accounts of the past, but the term inadvertently blinds us to women’s important contributions to historical discourse before the nineteenth century. Historiography has not been an entirely male preserve, though feminists are justified in faulting its long-standing masculine contours. In fact, criticism of historiography’s sexism is not of recent origin. Early eighteenth-century feminist Mary Astell protested that the Men being the Historians, they seldom condescend to record the great and good actions of Women. Astell, like those who echoed her sentiments two and a half centuries later, must be credited for admirable zeal in setting out to right scholarly wrongs, but her supposition that historians were only male is inaccurate. Her perception is especially strange because she herself wrote a historical work, An Impartial Enquiry into the Cause of Rebellion and Civil War (1704)。 Astell’s judgment is at the same time understandable, given that much historical writing by women of the late seventeenth century was not published until the nineteenth century. Despite their courage and their rightful anger, Astell and her descendants overlooked early modern woman writer’s contributions to historiography.

题目

1. It can be inferred that Rosalind Miles refers to the third millennium B.C. primarily in order to

A. present an overview of what the practice of history once entailed

B. suggest that the origins of historical study are much earlier than had been previously though

C. suggest why the third millennium B.C. has received so much attention from historians

D. establish a contrast between men and women in terms of how long they have been recording history

E. indicate how significantly the practice of history has changed since the third millennium B.C. 

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the term herstory

A. was popular mainly in the nineteenth century

B. is an old term that feminist put to new uses

C. is controversial within the feminist community

D. is not especially useful to scholars

E. was invented to help make a particular point 

3. Mary Astell is discussed by the author as an example of an eighteenth-century feminist historian

A. who was representative of the intellectual interests of the woman historians of her time

B. who inspired many practitioners of herstory in the twentieth century

C. who shared with modern herstorian’s a mistaken assumption regarding the writing of history

D. whose major work aroused much controversy at the time of its publication

E. whose major work still has not received the attention from scholars that it deserves 

4. The author implies which of the following about Astell’s supposition?

A. It is likely to have arisen because of Astell’s unawareness of much of the historical work written by women.

B. It was one that Astell reconsidered after she wrote her own historical work.

C. It was one that was not shared by other feminist historians of Astell’s time.

D. It was one that inspired Astell to write her own historical work.

E. It directly contradicts one of the basic claims of herstory.

答案
1.D   2.E  3.C   4.A
文章 8

A primary value in early twentieth-century Modernist architectural theory was that of “truth to materials”, that is, it was essential that a building’s design express the “natural” character of the building materials. This emphasis would have puzzled the architects of the Italian Renaissance (sixteenth century), a period widely regarded as the apex of architectural achievement, for Renaissance architects’ designs were determined only minimally by the materials employed. The diversity of Italy’s natural resources provided Renaissance architects with a wide variety of building materials. The builders of the Pitti Palace (1558-1570) used great blocks of Tuscan stone, just as Etruscans living in the same part of Italy had done some twenty centuries earlier. Had the Florentine Renaissance builders aped the Etruscan style, it might be said that their materials determined their style, since Etruscan style matched the massive, stark, solid character of the stone. But these same materials, which so suited the massive Etruscan style, were effectively used by the Florentine Renaissance to create the most delicate and graceful of styles. 

A similar example of identical materials used in contrasting styles characterizes the treatment of Roman travertine marble. When Baroque architects of seventeenth-century Rome desired a massive and solid monumental effect, they turned to travertine marble, whose “natural effect” is, indeed, that of spacious breadth and lofty, smoothly rounded surfaces. Yet during the Renaissance, this same material had been used against its “nature,” in the Florentine tradition of sharply carved detail. Italian Renaissance architecture was shaped less by the “nature” of the materials at hand than by the artistic milieu of Renaissance Italy, which included painting and sculpture as well as architecture. While Roman travertine marble may have lent itself to fine carving, the Florentine passion for fine detail is no less marked in Florentine Renaissance painting than in Florentine Renaissance architecture. Similarly, in the next century, the emphasis on shading and corporeal density in Baroque painting mirrored the use of Roman travertine marble in Baroque architecture to create broad shadow and powerful masses.

The ingenuity of Renaissance architects extended beyond merely using a material in a way not suggested by its outward natural appearance. If they conceived a design that called for a certain material either too expensive or difficult to work with, they made no scruple about imitating that material. Their marbles and their stones are often actually painted stucco. When the blocks of masonry with which they built were not in scale with the projected scheme, the real joints were concealed and false ones introduced. Nor were these practices confined, as some scholars insist, to the later and supposedly decadent phases of the art. Material, then, was utterly subservient to style.

题目

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. explaining the differences in quality among different kinds of building materials

B. discussing the differences among Etruscan, Florentine Renaissance, and Roman Baroque architecture

C. describing how different materials influenced architecture in different cities

D. describing the manner in which Renaissance architects often resorted to artificial materials and illusionistic effects

E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects toward the use of building materials 

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that which of the following is true of painting and architecture of the Baroque era?

A. Both emphasize the “natural” use of materials.

B. Both are derived from the Florentine Renaissance style.

C. Both have been overlooked by twentieth-century Modernists.

D. They have certain visual features in common.

E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style. 

3. The author’s mention of Florentine Renaissance painting serves in the context of the passage to support which of the following assertions?

A. The constraints that operate in architecture are different from those that operate in painting

B. Florentine architectural style was not determined by the nature of the available marble.

C. The Florentine Renaissance period was a period in which the other arts achieved the same distinction as did architecture.

D. Technical advances in all of the arts of the Florentine Renaissance determined the stylistic qualities of those arts.

E. Native preferences of style do not manifest themselves in the same ways in different arts.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the cited “scholars”?

A. They believe that a decadent phase is characteristic of any significant artistic movement.

B. They reject the popular view of the Renaissance as the apex of architectural achievement.

C. They believe that a vigorous and healthy architecture would not usually employ false surfaces or imitation building materials.

D. They represent the mainstream in critical and historical thought about the Florentine Renaissance.

E. They have focused on such technical matters as the cost of building materials rather than on artistic concerns.

答案
1.E   2.D    3.C    4.C
文章 9
Astronomers have had difficulty accounting for certain planets discovered outside our solar system. They are called hot Jupiters because each is similar in mass to Jupiter, the largest solar-system planet, but orbits its parent star at a fraction of the distance at which Earth, let alone Jupiter, orbits the Sun. In the standard, solar-system-based theory of planetary formation, such as a massive planet could not form so close to a star. So most attempts to explain a hot Jupiter’s existence envision it forming farther away, then migrating inward. According to one hypothesis, the planet’s gravitational field tugs on the protoplanetary disk of dust and gas from which it formed. The disk exerts its own gravitational tug, and this interplay of forces robs the planet of momentum in its orbital path, forcing it to spiral in toward the star. According to another hypothesis, the planet’s gravitational field is so strong that it creates a groove in the disk, partitioning it into inner and outer regions; the resulting gravitational interactions between the planet and these regions cause the planet to lose orbital momentum and spiral inward. Another question remains: what prevents the planet from continuing its spiral until it collides with the star?
题目

1. The author of the passage mentions “Earth” primarily in order to

A.stress the massive size of a hot Jupiter

B.emphasize the proximity of a hot Jupiter to its parent star

C.imply that hot Jupiters are unlikely to harbor extraterrestrial life

D.point out differences between Earth and Jupiter with regard to their orbital distance from the Sun

E.illustrate how hot Jupiters might fit into the standard theory of planetary formation 

2. Which of the following elements is part of one but not both of the hypotheses discussed in the passage?

A. an interplay of gravitational forces

B. a loss of orbital momentum

C. a protoplanetary disk composed of dust and gas

D. a protoplanetary disk divided into two regions. 

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the “attempts” share which of the following goals?

A. to explain how a Jupiter-sized planet could form so close to its parent star.

B. to explain what prevents a hot Jupiter from colliding with its parent star.

C. to determine whether a hot Jupiter is formed from a protoplanetary disk of dust and gas.

D. to determine whether a hot Jupiter’s gravitational field is strong enough to create a groove in its protoplantary disk

E. to account for hot Jupiters in a way that is not inconsistent with the standard theory of planetary formation.

答案
1.B    2.D     3.E
文章 10
Editors of major United States newsmagazines have been criticized for reducing the amount of space these magazines devote to international news. According to these editors, however, readers are wholly to blame for the reductions. After all, the editors point out, sales of magazine issues that prominently feature international news stories have declined significantly, and declining sales reflect declining reader interest. Yet even if true, this evidence does not refute the contention that editors are merely passive instruments responding to reader interest. And that is clearly an untenable view, since editors can often intensify reader interest in a news topic by giving it frequent coverage.
题目

In the argument as a whole, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first is evidence that has been used to support a position that the argument opposes; the second is a point that the argument raises to cast doubt on the reasoning used to support that position.

B. The first presents a claim, the truth of which is evaluated in the argument; the second is information introduced to cast doubt on that claim.

C. The first presents a claim, the truth of which is evaluated in the argument; the second provides evidence in support of that claim.

D. The first cites evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument; the second states that conclusion.

E. The first states an assumption that is explicitly made to support the main conclusion of the argument; the second is a position that the argument as a whole opposes.

答案
A
文章 11
Buell’s study of village sketches (a type of fiction popular in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s) provides a valuable summary of sketches that portray the community as homogeneous and fixed, but it ignores those by women writers, which typically depicted the diversity that increasingly characterized actual village communities at that time. These women’s geographical mobility was restricted (although women writers of the time were not uniformly circumscribed in this way), and their subject matter reflected this fact. Yet their texts were enriched by what Gilligan, writing in a different context, has called the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own. To varying degrees, the women’s sketches portray differences among community members: all stress differences among men and among women (particularly the latter) as well as differences between the sexes, and some also depict cultural diversity. These writers represent community as dynamic, as something that must be negotiated and renegotiated because of its members’ divergent histories, positions, expectations, and beliefs.
题目

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

1. According to the passage, village sketches written by women in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s typically reflected

A. the negotiations that characterized trade relationships between villages

B. the fact that these women did not often travel very far beyond their own village

C. the plurality of experiences and ideas that existed among the residents of a village 

2. Select the sentence in the passage that contrasts how men and women depicted life in village communities. 

3. The passage indicates that when Gilligan spoke of “the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own,” she

A. did not consider that ability to be a desirable psychological characteristic

B. did not believe that individuals differ greatly with respect to that ability

C. was implying that that ability enhances a sense of belonging in communities

D. was assuming that good writers are able to depict diverse characters

E. was not discussing the women who wrote village sketches

答案
1.BC    2. Buell’ study of village sketches (a type of fiction popular in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s) provides a valuable summary of sketches that portray the community as homogeneous and fixed, but it ignores those by women writers, which typically depicted the diversity that increasingly characterized actual village communities at that time. 3.E
文章 12

Until around 1930 few United States Civil War historians paid much attention to Southerners who opposed the 1861-1865 secession from the United States by a confederacy of Southern states. Southern historians clung instead to a notion of the South’s unanimity in the face of Northern aggression. Only when scholars such as Lonn decided to examine this side of the war did historian of the Confederacy begin to recognize the existence of Southerners loyal to the Union (Unionists)。 While these early historians of Southern dissent broke new ground, they also reproduced Confederate authoritie’s negative view of loyalists as shady characters driven by dubious motives. Even Tatum, who took a largely sympathetic attitude toward loyalists, tended to lump them into nebulous categories, offering broad generalizations that ignored the particulars of Unionists’ identities and experiences.

This early-twentieth-century historiography nonetheless represented the leading research on dissent in the South until the 1960s and 1970s. Spurred by the advent of social historical methods, a new generation of historians found Unionists interesting as manifestations of the Confederacy’s internal weaknesses. Focusing on the Appalachian Mountain and upper South regions of the Confederacy, these scholars argued that there was a profound divide among Southern Whites between those who benefited economically from slave-run plantations and those who did not. One such historian was Escott, who emphasized regional and economic conflict among Southerners. Escott cast Unionists and other dissenters as antiplanter mountaineers who could not, by reason of economic and social alienation, identify with the proslavery Southern cause. This theme has heavily influenced the work of subsequent scholars, who commonly place Unionists at the extreme end of a continuum of class-based Confederate disaffection that was ultimately responsible for the South’s collapse. Because the driving force behind such inquiries into loyalist history has been a desire to explain Confederate ideology, politics, and defeat, emphasis has been placed on the ways loyalist Southerners diverged from the political and economic mainstream of Confederate nationalism.

Only recently have some Civil War historians begun to make Unionists and their experiences, rather than the Confederate state, the center of inquiry. These scholars have done intensive community and local studies of dissenting groups that take into account a range of social and cultural, as well as military and political, factors at work on the Southern home front. Hoping to better understand who remained loyal to the Union during the war, these historians have sought to explain the Civil War’s underlying character, dimensions, and impact in particular counties or towns, especially in the upper South and Appalachia. This relatively new trend has stressed the particular, delved into the complexities of political allegiances on the home front, and, as Sutherland notes, highlighted “the gritty experience of real people”。

题目

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. summarize a particular debate among historians

B. trace the evolution of a particular area of historical study

C. challenge a common misconception about a particular historical period

D. identify flaws in a particular approach to the study of a historical subject

E. explain why a particular historical question has received little scholarly attention 

2. The passage suggests that “some Civil War historians”??Paragraph  would probably agree with which of the following statements about Southern Unionists?

A. Their economic circumstances were more significant than their social and cultural identities in determining their dissent from the Confederate cause.

B. Their significant to historians lies mainly in what their actions reveal about the mainstream of Confederate nationalism from which they departed

C. Their political allegiance must be understood in relation to specific local factors that affected their lives during the Civil War period

D. They were more likely to be from areas outside the upper South and Appalachia than were supporter of the Confederate cause

E. They were more likely to be from economically priviliged groups than were supporters of the Confederate cause. 

3. The passage suggests which of the following about histories of the Civil War written before 1930?

A. Some took a fairly sympathetic view of Southern Unionists.

B. Interest in these histories has been revived by the work of recent historians

C. Most offered little analysis of the lives and motives of Southern Unionists.

D. Many tended to group Southern Unionists into broad categories that obscured their differences.

E. Few accepted the idea that the South was politically unified during the Civil War. 

4. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?

A. It challenges a common misconception about the motives driving an influential group of Civil War historians.

B. It describes a major contribution of the Civil War historians of the 1960s and 1970s that inspired the next generation of scholars.

C. It calls attention to aspects of the Confederate cause that were alienating to those Southerners who remained loyal to the Union.

D. It identifies a tendency in Civil War scholarship that more recent scholarship has moved away from.

E. It explains how ideological and political aspects of the Confederacy loyalist Southerners to reject the Confederate cause.

答案
1.B    2.C    3.C    4.D
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