2018年7月下旬到8月上旬 托福独立写作小范围预测
冷暖自知 2018-07-27     11:04 来源: 三立整理
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托福
  第一题:   来源:大陆       话题:社会
  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Sometimes people think
  nowadays the media (TV, newspaper, Internet) are less concerned about the accuracy
  of news than in the past, and the incorrect information may cause more problem to
  the public.
  解题思路:我个人十分认同这个观点。
  现在媒体之间的竞争异常激烈,为了吸引更多的读者观众或者页面点击量,各个媒体公司都绞尽脑汁,除了保证新闻的真实性。
  理由1:新闻的时效性至关重要。发表新闻的速度越快,越容易获得更多的读者和观众。而确定新闻的真实性是需要花时间的。所以有的媒体公司很有可能会牺牲新闻的真实性来争取其时效性。
  理由2:随着通信技术的普及,人们了解新闻的渠道众多。所以为了吸引读者,很多媒体公司在发表新闻时,会夸大事实,博人吸引眼球,提高点击率。
  理由3:一些人会利用假新闻来误导读者,传播信息。
  总结:为了新闻时效性以及吸引读者的关注度,媒体确实可能会忽视新闻的真实性。但这会对读者和观众产生误导,所以需要政府、媒体自己和读者观众一起来监督。
  I personally do agree with this statement. Nowadays, competition among various media is extremely fierce. In order to attract more readers and audience or receive more page hits, media firms are racking their brains, without considering the accuracy of news.
  The timeliness of news is very crucial. The faster the news is released, the more readers or audience the company will get. However,it takes time to confirm the accuracy of news. Thus, some media firms may sacrifice accuracy for timeliness.     With the popularization of communication technologies,there are various ways for people to access news. So, for the sake of attracting readers and audience, many media firms are prone to exaggerate the fact when they release the news, making the news eye-catching and then improving click rate.
  Some people will take advantage of false news to mislead the mass, causing the spread of rumors.
  It is true that media may give up the accuracy of news for the purpose of timeliness and drawing more attention. But this news can be misleading. Therefore, the media industry calls for the supervision of government, readers and audience as well as media themselves.
  第二题:    来源:大陆       话题:社会
  If people want to contribute to the society, which of the following is the best way?
  1. riding bicycle or walking on foot
  2. recycling the waste
  3. buy local organic food
  解题思路:
  三选一的题目,选择一个答案,然后阐明理由即可。
  Opinion: recycling the waste is the best way to contribute to the society.
  Reason 1:recycling the waste could protect the environment and reduce the waste
  Reason 2:Save resources
  Reason 3:Improve the national quality and create a virtuous circle
  第三题:    来源:大陆       话题:价值观
  Which one of the following values is the most important to share with a young
  child(5-10 years old)?
  1.being helpful
  2.Being honest
  3.Being well-organized
  三选一的题目,选择一个答案,然后阐明理由即可。可在结尾处反驳一下另外两个观点。
  Opinion:Honesty
  Reason 1:诚实一个人行为的基本准则。用诚实引导孩子能够端正孩子的言行。
  Reason 2:诚实能为孩子赢得信任和尊重。
  Reason 3:诚然另外两个原则也能够对孩子成长起到作用,但是孩子年级尚小,对这些原则不如诚实对孩子产生额影响大。
  Childhood is the golden age of people’s lives because it is a time of physical growth and great leaps forward intellectually and socially. Being helpful, honest and well organized are values that parents and educators try to instill in children from a very young age, but I would argue that among these values, honesty would be the most important one to share with a young child.
  First and foremost, honesty is the cardinal principle of conducting oneself. Imparting honesty into children can hold them accountable for their behavior and teach them how to distinguish right from wrong from a young age. Unlike adults, children are normally unaware of the consequence of telling lies, and teaching them the value of honesty can help them realize how to act with integrity and confidence. For example, children who are conscious of being honest are more likely to contribute positively to the whole society in the future and will never defraud their clients and customers in workplace. In contrast, students who are dishonest may plagiarize other people’s thesis and fail to achieve success even though they perform well at school.
  Besides, being honest can help us win the trust and respect from others, even from those who are unfamiliar with us. It is widely known that childhood is an important period for children to learn lifelong social and emotional skills they need. Therefore, making them capable of being honest helps children learn how to behave in a more socially acceptable way. Just imagine, an honest child always gets along well with everyone at school, with a bunch of good friends around him. When he grows up, people are more willing to collaborate with him as well as to give him a hand when he gets into troubles. On the contrary, a dishonest child will be looked down upon by others and be regarded as a public enemy.
  Undeniably, being helpful and well organized are both important qualities, which do benefit children in their own way. The young generation can learn responsibility and find enjoyment in helping others. But the fact is, 5 to 10-year-old children are too young to be able to take care of themselves, not to speak of giving a hand to other people. As for the organizational skill, it just makes little sense since kids of that age are naturally active and naughty. Overemphasis on children’s organizational ability would have an adverse impact on their growth. If children are required to be well organized at any time, their creativity and imagination will be stifled.
  To sum up, I’m not saying that being helpful and well-organized are of no use, but compared to the importance of honesty, these two values can be crossed off the priority list.
  第四题:    来源:大陆       话题:价值观
  Some people like to buy and eat their meals at restaurants frequently, while others like to do this at home. Which do you prefer? Why?
  此类二选一的题目只能二选其一。话题与生活息息相关,在家吃饭与在餐厅就餐。无论选哪个应该都很好想到分论点,所以只需要联系自身具体做法,确定观点和分论点即可。
  Answer: I prefer to buy and eat my meals at restaurants
  Reason1. a wide variety of dishes offered by professional chefs
  Reason2. It could save much time
  Reason3. 辩证说明在家做饭的不可取之处。
  I prefer buying and eating my meals at restaurants. Nowadays, eating meals at restaurants is becoming a trend popular among young people. Seldom do they cook at home, and most of them even cannot cook themselves a hearty meal. As one of such young people, I prefer buying and eating my meals at restaurants. My reasons are given below.
  First, food offered in restaurants is prepared by professional chefs. Thus, it is tastier than the food cooked at home. No one can be so confident to boldly claim that he or she cooks better dishes than those chefs. This is even truer for me. So, in order to have a taste of the delicious food which I can ever be able to cook, I prefer eating at restaurants. Plus, with the globalization, which has already penetrated catering industry for decades, a large variety of cuisines from different countries and regions are served at local restaurants. When I fulfill my mouth and stomach with different tastes and flavors, the great joy of living is maximized. In the meantime, such cuisines give me an opportunity to have a completely new dining experience, by which I have learned much about exotic culture. For example, when I firstly ate steak, I didn’t know how to hold the fork and knife, what the difference between “medium” and “medium well” is, or whether I should better drink wine or champagne. After listening to the detailed explanation by the kind waitress, I came to know the answers to my questions. By the same token, eating sushi at a Japanese restaurant inspired me to know more about Japanese culture. This, then, became an impetus for my longing for travelling around the world.
  Another reason is that eating at restaurants save me large amount of time, which I can use for studying and working. Buying ingredients, preparing food and washing dishes afterward with no doubt consumes no less than two hours in total. In two hours, I can finish a lesson for Japanese language and also do some related quizzes. In two hours, I can hold a conference with my client to discuss further cooperation. In two hours, I can also play badminton with my friends in order to keep healthy. On the contrary, I will use two hours to have my not-so-tasty lunch if I cook by myself, and another two to have super. In this case, four hours are wasted every day and those who have someone prepare them for food or those who eat at restaurants have four more hours each day to equip themselves with new knowledge. Let’s take a small example to further explain this. Two students from the same class are preparing for an important test. One of them always cooks dinner himself and continues to do so during this period. So, he has at most 3 hours to study every day. Another eats at restaurants and has 7 hours for the preparation. Which student do you think will get better result for the coming test?
  Someone may reject by saying that cooking at home is more economical. I must say that they only see things with eyes but not with their hearts. Cooking at home indeed saves some money. But compared with the time it wastes, as I explained above, such money is nothing to speak of. When this time is used to study or work, the payback is more heart-stirring than one can imagine after some time’s accumulation. In addition, when people become more competent by making full use of the two more hours every day to expand their skill sets, they undoubtedly will be able to earn more money.
  In short, considering the advantages for eating at restaurants, I prefer to have my three meals at restaurants rather than to cook at home. And as far as I am concerned, those who enjoy the merriness of cooking with their own hands will sometimes need to sacrifice such merriness for more important and more rewarding things.
  第五题:    来源:大陆       话题:教育
  As a student of university that has a long break between university semesters, the
  university requires all students to do one of the following for one month during the
  break:
  1.Students must take a course on the subject that has no direct connection to their
  majors of study ( For example, a student majoring in engineering may take course in
  fine arts or social science.)
  2.Students must volunteer to work in the university’s city or their hometowns to
  improve some aspects of life of the city or their own town. ( For example, students may help local primary school children with their homework.)
  Which one do you think is more beneficial for students in their university? Why?
  Given detailed examples and reasons. Use your OWN words, do NOT use memorized
  examples.
  Opinion:
  Reason1: student of liberal arts who learn science lessons could improve their logical thinking ability
  Reason2: student <http://cn.bing.com/dict/search?q=student&FORM=BDVSP6&mkt=zh-cn>?of <http://cn.bing.com/dict/search?q=of&FORM=BDVSP6&mkt=zh-cn>?science <http://cn.bing.com/dict/search?q=science&FORM=BDVSP6&mkt=zh-cn>could nurture their humanity qualities and EQ
  Reason3: the developing world calls for talents with versatile subject knowledge
  第六题:    来源:大陆       话题:社会
  Sometimes we are assigned to work in a group on a project. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The group will be helped more by person who will be willing to do what other group members want than by person who often strongly insists that things should be done in a way that is different from what the group wants to do.
  Opinion: Agree
  Reason1: 成员遵守团队规则能够更好提升工作效率。
  Reason2: 提升团队工作动力。
  Reason3: 新成员加入团队能够释放新活力和新的灵感。
  As the core power of a group, the group members are obliged to spare no  efforts to push forward the project in progress. However, the members of a group  encompass people of different characteristics, divergent way of thinking and  working styles, as a result of which, someone may unconditionally follow the  group's orders, while someone maybe always critical about them. As far as I am  concerned, the former is more favorable when considering benefiting the whole  group.
  Primarily and undeniably, a higher working efficiency could be achieved if the group members could comply with the whole group’s rules and targets. During the process of accomplishing a project, team cooperation is of great significance, which could be realized by the wholehearted dedication of all members with their divergence being eliminated. Evidently, team cooperation is in direct proportion to the working efficiency of the group. By contrast, if a group member, when assigned tasks, always goes against the whole group’s progressing direction and working targets, a bunch of time will be wasted. What’s worse, direct conflict may arise, which brings forth great obstacles standing in the way before the project is started. It is due to such a  disagreement within the group that exerts side effects on the working efficiency.
  Apart from working efficiency, another important benefit of choosing a  compliant group member is all team members will work with greater impetus.  Compared with harmony, disagreement never fail to fuel bias and possibly  discrimination, hence creating a negative state of mind. Under such circumstance, almost everyone loses the impetus and motivation to struggle in the group, no matter how ambitious and aggressive they are before. Just imagine, an English association is going to conduct an English speaking contest. Every member of the group is allocated with certain assignment like purchasing required necessities, site layout, selecting the contestants and so on, with the purpose of guaranteeing the smooth progression of the contest. If someone of them refuses to accept the assignment by arguing that things should be arranged in another way, it may turn out to be great hazard to the morale of the group especially when others are in agreement with the plans. Needless to say, morale is to a group what soul is to humankind.
  I tend to concede that some novel ideas and inspirations may turn out to be new blood for the whole group, but that should not be an excuse for not obeying what the majority of the members insist. Just as an old saying goes: the minority is subject to the majority. Those bearing different considerations should put the collective in the first place.
  From what has been discussed above, it is safe to draw the conclusion that  a member willing to do what other group members want is more favorable for a group, not only for a higher working efficiency but also for a greater impetus.
  第七题:    来源:大陆       话题:教育
  Which one of the reason is most important in helping students to study in colleges and universities?
  A、Having access to the university to tutors who can provide individual instruction for
  the students who have difficulty in study.
  B、Having the help and encouragement from the family and friends.
  C、Having an excellent teachers in high-school who can help the students before the
  university.
  Use your OWN words to illustrate you point. Don’t use your memorized examples.
  Opinion: Obtaining supports and encouragements from family and friends is the most important factor in deciding learning efficacy in universities.
  Reason1:给学生提供源源不断的动力
  Reason2: 老师与朋友们的帮助比家教更加受欢迎
  Reason3:保留隐私,避免尴尬
  Nowadays, more and more students attend the university to pursue their dreams, and how to qualify the academic life becomes rather crucial. The best way to help student succeed in their academics, I believe, is to receive encouragement from family members or friends with previous university experience.
  In the first place, communication with friends and family can provide incessant motivation to the young students, especially those freshmen.After entering university or college, they are desperate to break the chains connecting them to school. They gradually develop difficulty to identify their orientation at very beginning of university education. As a result, problems emerge. But if some valuable advice or encouragement were offered, students would have behaved better and thus prevented themselves from indulging in entertainment in various kinds. Personal experience of higher education would only make the advice more convincing and much easier to be adopted by the students.
  Besides, help from friends and family is more welcomed by students than that from tutors and teachers. Young people are emotionally attached to friends and family members, which makes the opinions from them accepted more easily. It is another story with the tutors who can provide individual instruction or excellent teachers who prepare students better for university. Teachers are considered as authoritative superiors to students in the sense that they think from the perspective of an educator rather than an learner. Therefore, many students would reluctantly take the methods or advice proposed by them.
  Though tutors providing individualized help can solve some problems of certain students, there still are many students who refuse this method either because of hidden costs or possible embarrassment. In addition, high-quality of secondary education is not realistic. As we know, load of study has already been heavy. If school education needs to be improved,students would, undoubtedly, be required to finish more papers and work for longer time. It would end up with students’ mounting difficulty in current stage of education and of course affect the later stage.
  All in all, family’s and friends’ advice and encouragement is more tempting since it can remove the difficulty and is easily taken by young students.
  第八题:    来源:大陆       话题:生活方式
  Some young people are free in the evenings or have days off at school, which way can bring them the most benefit?
  1、to accumulate work experience by a part-time job or volunteering in a community
  2、learning to play a sport
  3、learning to play a musical instrument
  解题思路:阐明为什么选择该点。列举出理由。sports, music, part-time job, volunteering work 这几个关键词常常出现在托福独立写作,相信每位同学都能针对其中某一项说出不少支持的理由。比如运动有益身心健康,音乐陶冶情操,工作积累经验有助于毕业找工作或者目前职业的一个晋升等。不过要记得,无论选哪一个,千万不要忘了题目中所说的keypoint—bring the most benefit,带来最大的好处,所以在最后总结的时候也提一下另外两个点。
  Opinion: learning to play a sport.
  It seems that everyone in the world aspires to achieve something so as to live life to the full, especially the young who have a glorious future before themselves. Although a vast majority of people agree with this notion, opinions on how to achieve one’s ambitious dreams or realistic goals are diverse. As a broadly-disseminated idea goes that the other 8 hours of free time determine one’s success, an increasing number of young people are pondering a problem of how to maximize their “free” time – the 8 hours in the day when they are not studying, working or sleeping. As far as I am concerned, from the three above-mentioned ways to utilize the free time, I would unhesitatingly choose the second one – learning to play a sport.
  Despite the fact that the 8 hours after work or study can be a valuable resource one has to achieve one’s ideal life, let’s be honest first, the time when one is working or studying is the most valuable. It is imperative for either students or workers to make the full use of this “unfree” time for any academic pursuit or career advancement, in which case an investment of large amounts of energy and attention is required. Then, physical and mental fatigue would unavoidably ensue. Therefore, the way I see it, when these young people are free in the evenings or have days off at school, relieving their tiredness should be given top priority. Learning to play a sport and engaging in related sports activities, even just for a few minutes, will help to relax their muscles and relieve the tension in the face, neck, shoulders and other body parts. Alvin Old man, a lead researcher of New Channel Health Center, emphasized that people who exercise regularly feel more energetic throughout the day, sleep better at night, and feel more relaxed and positive about themselves and their lives.
  It is tempting to argue that play sports will help to relax, so will learning to play a musical instrument and engaging in related musical activities. Nevertheless, further analysis would reveal that playing a musical instrument is not so easy as expected. A simple piece of music may require seven consecutive days of practice, for which seldom would persist. Meanwhile, just hearing a couple of musical notes by touching the strings of guitar or hitting the keys of piano is neither likely to relieve one mentally since no melodious music is produced nor likely to relieve one physically in the same way sports does.
  As for the first choice, let’s be honest once again, little working experience could be accumulated through a part-time job or volunteering in the a community simply due to the fact that little amount of time is devoted to this kind of work. This so called first hand experience lasts for such a short time that participants barely knows what the rules and regulations of a certain company are or how the business operations are conducted. Moreover, do not interpret part-time job or volunteering work literally, more often than not they can be rather demanding, and of course, time-consuming, for which seldom would persist.
  In conclusion, learning to play a sport is young people’s best choice in their free time.
  第九题:    来源:大陆       话题:生活方式
  Some people think it is the best approach for students to learn if school start the day
  at an early time in the morning. But someone think the school should start the day at
  late time. Which one do you prefer? Use specific reasons and detailed examples to
  support your answer.
  Opinion: it is the best approach for students to learn if school start the day at an late time in the morning .
  首先表明自己所支持的观点。晚起能够保证学生的休息时间,提高学习效率;注意力更加集中(举例说明);避免交通堵塞。
  In the contemporary society, the length of study time on the part of students has become one of the most hottly debated issue among the general public. When it comes to whether students should be required to arrive school at the early time in the morning, people’s notions may vary from one to another. In my eyes, starting school day at a late time is a better choice for the following reasons.
  To begin with, arriving school at the late time will ensure students have a good rest and thus contributes to the improvement of their study efficiency. As is common sense, the increasingly heavy study burden on the shoulder of students has squeezed their leisure time so much that their sleeping time cannot be guaranteed. As a result, with the implementation of starting school day in a late time, the quality of their rest will be improved, with the consequence that their attention will be more concentrated in class. On the contrary, shortening their rest time by requesting students begin class early will definitely produce a negative effect on their study. To be specific, it will be common to observe that students feel so sleepy as to have a short nap during the class.   In addition, students who start school day in a late time will obviously avoid being stuck in traffic jam and thus have a better mood in the morning. Undoubtedly, under the drive of a cheerful frame of mind, children will raise their efficiency of study to a large extent. The experience of my cousin, Tom, can serve as a good example to shed some lights on the above reasoning. Tom, a student in a middle school of Beijing, used to be required to arrive school at 8 a.m. every morning in order to prepare better for the National Examination of College Admission. However, the problem is that according to the regulations of most companies, employees also have to start work at 8 a.m. Therefore, it is not hard to imagine that the subways, buses and taxis are crowded with people in the morning. According to Tom’s recounting, no one will feel good after such a experience, let alone immediately devoting him/herself to study.
  Taking what has been discussed into consideration, we can draw the conclusion that it is wise to require student to arrive school at a late time in the morining, in order to ensure the quality of their rest and develop a light heart.
  第十题:    来源:大陆       话题:教育
  Some people believe that video games could inspire young students' interest and
  make their study more efficient rather than distracting them and a waste of time, so
  young students should be allowed to play video games.
  Opinion: young students should be allowed to play video games.
  Reason1:丰富多彩的游戏节目成为很多学生缓解压力,释放情绪的一种有效方式。设想,孩子们在校努力学习,课后读补习班,作业繁重,鲜有大量的时间休闲娱乐,玩游戏可令学生们暂时忘记现实生活中的烦恼和压力。
  Reason2:一些竞技类的游戏其实是锻炼玩家的反应能力和布局能力的,因此,学生玩家也会培养多方面能力,例如手眼并用,危机处理,团队协作等。
  Reason3:有些游戏的设计,以学习为导向,寓教于乐,让玩家在娱乐中学习知识,这也可以提高他们的学习效率,激发他们的学习热情。
  Computer games like many other prevailing entertaining activities are look down up by many parents as time-wasters. However, it is true that video games have been exerting a peculiar fascination on a great many people young players. Perhaps that is why people differ greatly in their stands as to whether students should be allowed to play video games. As I see it, it is no need to stop students from playing games so long as we properly arrange and control their game time.
  To be sure, some problems invariably ensue if students excessively indulge in the computer games. First, violent video games are always blamed by the media as the reason why some teenage players become aggressive and even conduct some anti-social offenses. Also, the craziness about games is physically detrimental because players tend to reduce physical activities, thus, the sedentary lifestyle would increase the likelihood of obesity. Eventually, many parents are worried that the study will be delayed. The sole task of students is to update their knowledge. Youngsters will regret it for the rest of their lives if they fail to utilize their precious youth.
  However,there is no reason to throw out the child along with the bath. Seen from the positive aspects, students can still become the beneficiaries of computer games provided that they can play in a proper way. Initially, some mental techniques trained by video games include: quick reaction, teamwork strategy, crisis-solving abilities, hand-eye coordination and so on. This kind of goal-driving experience will influence the players’ future life positively. Also, proper game time can, to some extent, help teenagers relieve their strain triggered by tight academic study. Imaginably, the study efficiency can be improved if one can vent his or her negative emotions. Last, some learning-oriented games can still facilitate students’ study, it is a good thing if players can acquire knowledge in a relaxing way.
  In closing,whether the impacts that computer games exert on players are positive or negative largely depends on how students treat games. There are many benefits for people to play video games, as for students, they should control the time,excessive indulgence is unwise.
  第十一题:    来源:大陆       话题:教育
  Students in a university club want to help others, but they can only choose one project a year, which one of the following is the best?
  A. Help those students in a nearby primary school with reading and mathematics;
  B. Help people who cannot afford to build or rent a home to build a house;
  C. Visit and assist elderly people with daily tasks.
  Opinion: Help people who cannot afford to build or rent a home to build a house is the best.
  Reason1: the students themselves will learn to transfer their academic knowledge to practice
  Reason2: learn how to cooperate with others in a team
  Reason3: learn the devotion to the society
  Student clubs, from the first day they came into being, have been encouraged and supported by universities throughout the world. With the aim of enriching the social, practical and academic experiences, they have also gained popularity among both parents and students. Usually, the club activities should be feasible and beneficial to students in one way or another. Therefore, compared with tutoring primary school students and dealing with daily tasks for the old, I think building houses is a project that will yield tangible results.
  First, by designing and constructing a building, the students themselves will learn to transfer their academic knowledge to practice. It has been widely acknowledged that the purpose of education is to cultivate talents for society, the ones who are able to contribute to our better quality of life. University students have spent at least twelve years accumulating knowledge, and it’s time for them to show the society what they have mastered. Building a house requires knowledge of various aspects, from architectural design to construction engineering, from interior design to the arrangement of the entire landscape, all of which can only be accomplished with the joint effort by students of different majors. During the whole process, the club members will not only polish their professional skills, but also learn how to cooperate with others in a team. In this regard, assisting the old in their daily chores seems a little trivial and time-consuming, since nothing except a slight sense of achievement will be gained from this project.
  Second, offering instructions in reading and mathematics to those younger school age children is by no means an easy job for university students. Do not assume that those future social elites are capable of teaching kids. As we know, children usually lack the ability of self-control and they need to be inspired, which means strict rules and proper methods are indispensable in carrying out efficient tutoring. Primary teachers, although not so adept at academic theories, are definitely experienced in stimulating children’s interest and steering their thinking. Anyone without the training had better not to make an attempt, since if they accidentally distinguish the children’s passion in learning, the result could be irreversible. However, there is no doubt that university students have the ability to build a sound and comfortable house for the ones in need. Therefore, they should do what they are good at.
  To sum up, since club activities should aim at improving students’ ability instead of causing troubles, it is better for students to design and construct a building for the underprivileged.
  第十二题:    来源:大陆       话题:环境
  The government can take a variety of actions to help protect the environment. Which one of the following do you think is the most important for the nation’s government to take to protect the environment.
  1. Fund the research to develop environmentally friendly energy sources such as solar
  and wind energy.
  2. Preserve the natural places like forests and protect the animals that live there.
  3. Enforce laws to prevent the pollution of air and water by large companies.
  Opinion: Enforce laws to prevent the pollution of air and water by large companies.
  is of vital importance.
  Reason1: 反驳另外两个观点的不可行性,从正面支持索要阐明的观点
  Reason2: 环保立法能树立环保意识
  Reason3: 立法能够防止人们的恶意破坏环境行为
  Thousands years of human history being through reflect the trail, from ancestors to we generation, that how government addressed numerous environmental problems, especially those toughest and stubborn conundrums recurring periodically. Until now, there’s still a concern about which way is effective in the environment protection. Personally speaking, I insist the idea that passing laws to prevent companies from polluting air and water could be a better choice.
  Though there are another approaches that governments take into consideration, the weaknesses of them cannot be easily eliminated. Firstly, by providing fund for the research dealing with the problem of energy sources, government can be able to have a better understanding in the use of solar and wind energy and other types of energy sources. However, prior to investment, where to get enough fund is a serious problem. In addition, even though the government could preserve the natural places the animals inhibited, they cannot prevent people from polluting it again. Consequently, government still need to rely on enforcing laws to prohibit behaviors which might scout a bad result to environment.
  With assistance of laws, environment can help people form a sense of conservation of natural resources . As more and more modern machines with better and better techniques, the major problem of environment in modern society is not about how to make use of energy reasonably, but how to exploit them in the long-term without exhausting them completely. Some private owners of natural land or fishing areas are limited to asses the limit of these resources. Therefore, they might overexploiting the land or overfishing with their sophisticated vessels. If certain laws could be passed to prevent this, people might develop a capacity to manage these recourse efficiently. A good case is Cape Cod. Once there was a large amount of cod fish. However, with the development of fishing industry causing damage to the environment, the number of cod fish went down about 5% annually. As a result, the cod fish nearly extinct and fishing industry there became unprofitable. So passing laws to protect natural resources is a urgent matter.
  Besides the sense of environment protection, legislation can avoid some malicious acts to the environment. Now in cities, tremendous particles caused by transportations spread widely in all around us. If  these particles, such as sulfuric dioxide, monoxide and other chemical compounds, were trapped through people’s noses or mouths, it will cause cough, fever and asthma. In this way, enforcing laws to restrict the use of fossil fuels in transportations, to some extent, can alleviate these problems. On top of that, for the development and profit, many factories have discharged sewage into water bodies within the first grade surface sources protection zones for domestic and drinking water even though they know this behavior will bring about bad results. In this way, only laws could be a effective way to forbid this.
  On balance, Compared to providing fund and conserving natural resources, passing laws is a more effective way and, considering the function of it, cannot be replaced.
  第十三题:    来源:大陆       话题:
  University students are often encouraged to study fields in which significant job
  growth (a large increase in job opportunities) is expected; these fields currently include science, technology, engineering, and math, do you believe students should consider studying fields related to these subjects even if they are more interested in other subjects? Why or why not?
  Opinion: students should not consider studying fields related to these subjects.
  Reason1:只有学习那些就业前景好的专业才能未来学生就业有所帮助。
  Reason2: 学习该领域的只能能够让他们更加适应社会。
  Reason3: 学习这些专业知识让他们产生更多兴趣,帮助他们更好完成工作。
  As different kinds of jobs have pouring up in the modern society, the competition between graduated students become more intensive, especially in the field of computer science and engineering. Hence, before getting into university, which subject students should choose to study has became a significant decision. Should students choose the subjects they are interested? In my point of view, I believe not.
  First and foremost, studying fields in which significant job growth is expected can give students enough assistance in the future career. Nowadays, more and more jobs have a deep association with computer. Mastering computer skills becomes a necessary requirement for most applicants. The employees in most companies need to complete most of their tasks with computers. For instance, the employees in a economic company located in Washington D.C always make use of computer to build mathematic models and do serious statistics so as to get a better understanding of their customers’ habits. Therefore, students are not familiar with these operations might have difficulty in getting this kind of jobs.
  Apart of job hunting, by acquiring knowledge in these fields they can better adapt modern society. Apparently, modern science and technology has developed in a high speed, which beyond our imagination. In this hustle and bustle society, striving in these field is one of the best ways for students to keep up with the pace of social development. For example, the most hot topic in the field of computer is machine  learning. Even though this jargon is quite strange to ordinary people, the techniques in this field has been widespread exploited in numerous aspects of our lives. More and more jobs related to machine learning appear subsequently. If students want to accommodate themselves to these jobs, studying in this field is a prerequisite thought they don’t like.
  Admittedly, in the process of building the knowledge in the fields they are more interested, they are able to easily get more things done. As they could be more motivated both mentally and physiologically, it’s pretty possible that they can make a breakthrough in the research related to the subject they study in. However, where could they get enough financial support? Everybody has to consider how to support his/her own life and family. Even though this is very ruthless, I think no one could avoid this problem. Even worse, the financial they get might not satisfy the need of research, let alone their lives and families.
  On balance, studying fields in which significant job growth is expected has the edge over the one they are more interested in.
  第十四题:    来源:大陆       话题:
  Many companies sell products or services but at the same time cause environmental damage. Someone said it can be stop by ask them to pay penalty, such as a higher tax when they cause the environmental damage. Others said there are better ways to stop them from harming environment. What do you think is the best way to prevent the environment from deteriorating?
  解题思路:首先阐明自己支持的观点,并给出支持该论点的论据。通过让步引出反对(两点)的观点,再写反对该观点的理由。最后综合考虑,选择自己支持的论点。
  Nowadays, air pollution has become a serious problem that concerns us with its damage to not only the environment, but also our physical well-being. Although some people propose to raise the cost of fuel as a solution to this issue, I personally believe that it is not the best way to solve the problem of air pollution.
  Indeed, increasing the enforcement of penalty can reduce the damage to the environment to some extent. Considering the higher costs in handing in fines to the law enforcement departments, these companies might figure out ways to reduce the amount of pollution. As a result, the pollution decreases in the toxic chemicals and wasted gases in the environment. However, this solution does not solve the problem completely. Even the price goes up, most companies would still make a fortune. Such necessity is not able to be replaced, and pollution would continue to be a problem. For example, many factories in south Beijing have emitted numerous pollutants to the nearby river. Although the local government has posed more taxation on them, what they may choose to do is to produce more products to balance the loss in taxes, making the pollution even worse.
  Exploiting new energy sources, on the other hand, is a better alternative to reduce pollution because it is a stable solution that will solve the problem eternally. Cars that are powered by solar energy, for example, cause no harm to our environment, since it uses a long-lasting and powerful battery to absorb and store the energy from the sunlight and then use this energy to power the cars. According to research conducted by scientists in Japan and China, the solar energy cars do not produce any greenhouse gases such as the carbon dioxide and the sulfur dioxide, or toxic materials that polluted the air. Based on this, cars driven by solar energy would reduce the emission of waste gas to the environment.
  Moreover, shutting down the factories that produced air pollution is another more effective way to reduce the toxics in the environment. In fact, most of the air pollution comes from the disqualified factories, not from the wasted gases from the cars. After the city government of Beijing shut down hundreds factories around the city in 2008, the air quality of Beijing increased by 40%. The blue sky above the skyscrapers appeared for more than a month, s sight that has never been seen for the past ten years. In such case, regulating the factories that produced air pollution effectively improved the quality air.
  All in all, I believe taking harsh penalty for companies is not the best way to reduce the air pollution, since there are better alternatives such as shutting down the factories and applying new energy sources to people’s lives.
  第十五题:    来源:大陆       话题:
  Which way do you think is the best for a student to make new friends.
  a. joining a sports team,
  b. participating in community activities,
  c. traveling.
  解题思路:选择自己所支持的论点,然后列举支撑的论据,并反驳另外两个论点的不可取之处。
  Opinion: participating in community activities is the best way for a student to make new friends.
  Reason1: they can find friends with same interests
  Reason2: learn how to corporate with others
  Reason3: learn from others' strong points and close the gap
  It is widely acknowledged that lasting and reliable friendship is a stuff that every individual is longing for. Traveling, community activities and joining a sport team arc regarded as three effective ways of making new friends. An exceedingly large number of people believe that community activities and traveling arc the best way to make new friends. However, contrary to a myriad of people's standpoint, I hold the view that joining a sport team is undoubtedly the best method.
  In the first place, when it comes to efficiency, compared with participating in activities and traveling, there is no doubt that joining a sport team is more efficient to build friendship. As we all know, when we arc joining a sport team, we naturally communicate with other members about the match strategy without any hesitations, enhancing mutual understanding dramatically. However, in traveling or activities, worrying about inadequate words, we feel uncomfortable and often talk little with others, especially strangers. Take the ease of my best friend for example. Bill and I met each other in a basketball varsity last year. In our first training, we began to communicate and discuss about strategy of defense, ways of improving accuracy of three-pointer. In the next two weeks, we were playing basketball together and soon became close friends. Nevertheless, Marry and I met in a community activities and since we did not need to cooperate during the activities, we talked little with each other .In light of this, joining a sport team can assist students to make friends quicker than other ways.
  Furthermore, in contrast with community activities and traveling, another advantage of joining a sport team is that students get more relaxation in sports. Students nowadays have to face heavy pressures from work and study, which have even jeopardized their health and growth. Under this circumstance, it is by joining a team that they have a break from overwhelming class and study. For example, last year, I was busy and overwhelmed in preparing my GRE test. Worrying about indecent performance, I was very stressed and even suffered from insomnia. Then I forced myself to join a basketball team and played basketball every day, during which I focused my attention on basketball and forgot about the troubles in study. After several weeks, I felt better and got rid of insomnia, achieving a desirable grade at last. In the aggregate, to join a sport team helps students relax from work.
  Last but not the least, when students join a sport team, for example basketball team, to achieve victory, they must cooperate with their mates. Therefore, it will undoubtedly foster their cooperation ability, at the least possible to achieve if students choose to go traveling and participate in activities. Sense of cooperation will lay a more solid foundation to nurture friends. According to a survey conducted by University of Chicago, students who always join a sport team arc more likely to possess excellent cooperation ability in the future. Thus, students joining a sport team will also improve their cooperation spirits.
  It is true that considerable advantages of making new friends by participating in community activities and traveling exist. However, these advantages pale when compared with merits of joining a sport team. From all discussions above, it is apparently safe to conclude that joining a sport team is the best way to make new friends.
  第十六题:    来源:大陆       话题:Society
  In order to attract more tourists, the government could either improve safety by hiring more police or improve its appearance by repairing old buildings and streets. Which way do you think is more effective?
  解题思路:首先阐述自己支持或者反对的观点。然后列举支持该观点的理由,采取总分总的模式。
  Opinion: improve its appearance by repairing old buildings and streets is more effective.
  Reason1: reserve the cultural deposit
  Reason2: the quality of the tourist site is fundamental
  Reason3: improving the streets makes it convenient for tourists.
  Nowadays, for the economic development of a city, the government place undue emphasis on how to boost its tourism industry. While some experts show their enthusiasm on selling their cities to outside tourists by publicizing good social security via recruiting more police, I hold a different opinion. From my perspective, improving old buildings and streets is a better alternative.
  Admittedly, hiring more police might be useful in attracting tourists. When government is focusing on recruiting more policemen, these new recruiters would be helpful in improving social security standards. Thanks to the improved standards, more visitors might be relieved about the city when paying a visit to the city; hence the the city reputation would be enhanced. However, on balance, only focusing on police while not improving building places of interest is not enough. Without places about culture or places for amusement parks, visitors still would not come even if social security is good. To attract more visitors, a more effective way would be to improve old buildings.
  To begin with, improving old buildings helps preserve old cultures. In other words, more visitors would love to visit places with cultural value so the maintenance of old buildings is attractive to them. For example, when Beijing government begins to repair the Great Wall, the symbol of diligence of ancient Chinese people, the experts pay great attention on building the wrecked walls and restoring some stone relics. Meanwhile, they reshape some broken bricks for the steps so that visitors could step onto the Great Wall. As a result, an increasing number of visitors from foreign countries come to Beijing to watch the marvelous Great Wall building on top of piles of mountains. On the contrary, if hiring more police, though government would gain reputation for their good management in social security, it would not add to any cultural attraction.
  In addition, improving the streets makes it convenient for tourists. That's is to say, tourists would love to visit places with convenient facilities. According to a survey conducted on Sina Weibo, after polling hundreds of tourists from the National Holiday, a significant percentage of them claim that when deciding a place as their touring destination, they are more likely to choose a city with broader streets. In their minds, when the city is built with convenient streets and beautiful auxiliary facilities, this urban planning would give tourists a sense of modernism and make them feel go into colorful metropolitan life. With these perfect streets, public transport would be convenient for them to visit both in city and around city.
  To sum up, due to the reasons I lost above, I would regard that by perfecting streets and maintaining old buildings, government would be more likely to attract tourists to visit the city.
  第十七题:    来源:大陆       话题:Economy
  In your opinion, if a government is facing economic problems, which of the following areas should it spend less money on?
  A.libraries
  B.public transportation
  C. Police
  解题思路:全文采取总分总的框架。先肯定另外两个话题点的优点,再引出相比较之下,另外一个话题点的不足,因此此话题点成为题目所要说的应该投资更少钱的去处。
  Opinion: Library should be spend less money on.
  Libraries, public transportation, and police forces are all important parts of society,but they are not all equal when it comes to keeping society running. If one area had to have its funding reduced,it would probably be best to pick libraries.
  Law enforcement is necessary to keep society functioning safely, so it would be unacceptable to reduce funding in this area. If we deprive police forces of the resources they need to maintain peace and order,then people would not be able to use things like libraries or public transportation without a sense of fear. They might get ambushed on the way to the library,for example,or mugged while taking public transportation late at night.In fact,these things already happen now-can you imagine how much worse it would be with more poorly-equipped police?
  Public transportation is also essential to the functioning of modern society, so cutting corners here would be a bad idea as well. Because modern cities must accommodate enormous populations. weakening public transportation in any way would prove disastrous for millions of people who could no longer get to work or school. If you've ever lived in a major city you'll know that it's disruptive enough on days when only a single subway line breaks down; if we cut funding for public transportation we can expect things to be even worse. And it’s not as if everybody could just drive or bike to work either: the roads in our cities were not built to support entire present-day populations of people all traveling by car or bicycle at once.
  Compared with law enforcement and public transportation, libraries are much less relevant to modern society.The main reason is that text materials can now be stored in digital form. Even though libraries are useful to have around for other reasons,their primary purpose as repositories of books can be largely filled by computers and the internet now. Maintaining a brick-and-mortar library costs a lot more than just maintaining a server with digital books. And how many of us really go to libraries anyway? If we looked at the statistics, we would doubtlessly discover that people sought out textual resources in digital form online far more often than they did in book form at libraries.
  For those reasons. it seems that libraries are less crucial to the operations of society than both police forces and public transportation. Thus, we should probably choose libraries if we are ever presented with the dilemma of where to cut funding.
  第十八题:    来源:大陆       话题:Media
  When making major purchase (for example, car or laptop), our decisions can be
  influenced by different sources of information. Explain how each of the following
  sources of information can influence your decision.
  (1) Recommendations from friends or colleagues.
  (2) Information from media (for example, TV, magazines, newspapers) .
  (3) Recommendations from sales person in the store.
  解题思路:首先以自身为例,引出该话题,并提出集中考虑方案。再通过影响由小到大来说明自己选择最终观点的理由,层层递进,让自己的观点更加有说服力。
  Opinion: Recommendations from friends or colleagues.
  Buying things can be work. If you’re running on a budget like me, it’s always important to make as informed a purchase as possible. I try to consider several sources of information—salespeople, friends and colleagues, and media.
  The least useful of these three sources is recommendations from salespeople. This is because salespeople don’t always have your best interests in mind. I remember one time when I was hunting for a new television a few years ago. I’d visited a number of large retailers, and at every single one, the salespeople had tried to sell me a more expensive TV than the one I wanted. I didn’t need all of the extra features these pricier TVs had—I just wanted something simple with an acceptable level of picture quality. But none of the salespeople were very helpful for finding something that fit my criteria. Since salespeople often make a commission for selling these types of devices, they probably won’t provide you with the most reliable information. But you can still consult them in the beginning if you’re lost.
  More useful are recommendations from friends and colleagues. They will be far more likely to give you an honest picture of what to expect from a product. I’ve made many small- to medium-sized purchases based on suggestions from these sources, and I’ve rarely regretted it. Someone who uses a product on a daily basis can tell you all its pros, cons, and quirks. For example, when I was looking to buy a pair of portable laptop speakers, I asked one of the IT guys in my office for ideas. He pointed me towards an affordable pair of USB speakers, but made sure to tell me that they worked poorly at high volumes because of the limited energy that USB ports can provide. Since I was only using the speakers for traveling, that was an acceptable trade-off for the excellent price, so I picked up a pair from the store.
  My go-to source of information for purchases is still from media, however. I think the internet is particularly useful for this. Pretty much anything you can buy has been reviewed by someone on the internet, so you’re not limited to the unreliable testimonies of salespeople or the limited range of products used by friends and colleagues. Not only that, but for the more popular products, there are usually tens if not hundreds of reviews, so you get a good idea of how reliable different manufacturers are. For instance, when I was in the market for a new laptop last year, friends recommended several models to me. Using review websites, I managed to eliminate many of them based on negative performance evaluations and customer testimonies about defects.
  It doesn’t hurt to consider all three sources of information. However, there’s a clear hierarchy when it comes to their usefulness. Salespeople are OK to start off with, but you’ll want to get some tips from friends and colleagues, and in the end, verify those tips online.
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