In 1903 the members of the governing board of the University of Washington, in Seattle,
engaged a firm of landscape architects, specialists in the design of outdoor environment —
Olmsted Brothers of Brookline, Massachusetts — to advise them on an appropriate layout for the
university grounds. The plan impressed the university officials, and in time many of its
recommendations were implemented. City officials in Seattle, the largest city in the northwestern
United States, were also impressed, for they employed the same organization to study Seattle's
public park needs. John Olmsted did the investigation and subsequent report on Seattle's parks. He
and his brothers believed that parks should be adapted to the local topography, utilize the area's
trees and shrubs, and be available to the entire community. They especially emphasized the need
for natural, serene settings where hurried urban dwellers could periodically escape from the city.
The essence of the Olmsted park plan was to develop a continuous driveway, twenty miles long,
that would tie together a whole series of parks, playgrounds, and parkways. There would be local
parks and squares, too, but all of this was meant to supplement the major driveway, which was to
remain the unifying factor for the entire system.
In November of 1903 the city council of Seattle adopted the Olmsted Report, and it
automatically became the master plan for the city's park system. Prior to this report, Seattle's park
development was very limited and funding meager. All this changed after the report. Between
1907 and 1913, city voters approved special funding measures amounting to $4,000,000. With
such unparalleled sums at their disposal, with the Olmsted guidelines to follow, and with the
added incentive of wanting to have the city at its best for the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of
1909, the Parks Board bought aggressively. By 1913 Seattle had 25 parks amounting to 1,400
acres, as well as 400 acres in playgrounds, pathways, boulevards, and triangles. More lands would
be added in the future, but for all practical purposes it was the great land surge of 1907-1913 that
established Seattle's park system.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The planned development of Seattle's public park system
(B) The organization of the Seattle city government
(C) The history of the Olmsted Brothers architectural firm
(D) The design and building of the University of Washington campus
2. The word "engaged" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
3. The word "subsequent" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
4. Which of the following statements about parks does NOT reflect the views of the Olmsted
(A) They should be planted with trees that grow locally.
(B) They should provide a quiet, restful environment.
(C) They should be protected by limiting the number of visitors from the community.
(D) They should be designed to conform to the topography of the area.
5. Why does the author mention "local parks and squares" in lines 14 when talking about the
(A) To emphasize the difficulties facing adoption of the plan
(B) To illustrate the comprehensive nature of the plan
(C) To demonstrate an omission in the plan
(D) To describe Seattle's landscape prior to implementation of the plan
6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about how citizens of Seattle received
the Olmsted Report?
(A) They were hostile to the report's conclusions.
(B) They ignored the Olmsted's findings.
(C) They supported the Olmsted's plans.
(D) They favored the city council's seeking advice from another firm.
7. According to the passage , when was the Olmsted Report officially accepted as the master plan
for the Seattle public park system?
8. The word "sums" in line 20 is closest in meaning to
9. According to the passage , which of the following was most directly influenced by the
Alaska-Yukon- Pacific Exposition?
(A) The University of Washington
(B) Brookline, Massachusetts
(C) The mayor of Seattle
(D) The Seattle Parks Board