The term "folk song" has been current for over a hundred years, but there is still a good deal of
disagreement as to what it actually means. The definition provided by the International Folk
Music Council states that folk music is the music of ordinary people, which is passed on from
person to person by being listened to rather than learned from the printed page. Other factors that
help shape a folk song include: continuity (many performances over a number of years); variation
(changes in words and melodies either through artistic interpretation or failure of memory); and
selection (the acceptance of a song by the community in which it evolves).
When songs have been subjected to these processes their origin is usually impossible to trace.
For instance, if a farm laborer were to make up a song and sing it to a-couple of friends who like it
and memorize it, possibly when the friends come to sing it themselves one of them might forget
some of the words and make up new ones to fill the gap, while the other, perhaps more artistic,
might add a few decorative touches to the tune and improve a couple of lines of text. If this
happened a few times there would be many different versions, the song's original composer would
be forgotten, and the song would become common property. This constant reshaping and
re-creation is the essence of folk music. Consequently, modem popular songs and other published
music, even though widely sung by people who are not professional musicians, are not considered
folk music. The music and words have been set by a printed or recorded source, limiting scope for
further artistic creation. These songs' origins cannot be disguised and therefore they belong
primarily to the composer and not to a community.
The ideal situation for the creation of folk music is an isolated rural community. In such a
setting folk songs and dances have a special purpose at every stage in a person's life, from
childhood to death. Epic tales of heroic deeds, seasonal songs relating to calendar events, and
occupational songs are also likely to be sung.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Themes commonly found in folk music
(B) Elements that define folk music
(C) Influences of folk music on popular music
(D) The standards of the International Folk Music Council
2. Which of the following statements about the term "folk song" is supported by the passage ?
(A) It has been used for several centuries.
(B) The International Folk Music Council invented it.
(C) It is considered to be out-of-date.
(D) There is disagreement about its meaning.
3. The word "it" in line 8 refers to
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the typical folk
(A) It is constantly changing over time.
(B) It is passed on to other people by being performed.
(C) It contains complex musical structures.
(D) It appeals to many people.
5. The word "subjected" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
6. The author mentions the farm laborer and his friends (lines 10-14) in order to do which of the
(A) Explain how a folk song evolves over time
(B) Illustrate the importance of music to rural workers
(C) Show how subject matter is selected for a folk song
(D) Demonstrate how a community, chooses a folk song
7.According to the passage , why would the original composers of folk songs be forgotten?
(A)Audiences prefer songs composed by professional musicians.
(B) Singers dislike the decorative touches in folk song tunes.
(C) Numerous variations of folk songs come to exist at the same time.
(D) Folk songs are not considered an important form of music.
8. The word "essence" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(A) basic nature
(B) growing importance
(C) full extent
(D) first phase
9. The author mentions that published music is not considered to be folk music because
(A) the original composer can be easily identified
(B) the songs attract only the young people in a community
(C) the songs are generally performed by professional singers
(D) the composers write the music in rural communities