老程说 | 托福听力就该这么听
2018-11-27     18:36 来源: 原创
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托福听力一直是备考托福考试的同学们最头疼的。首先,它题量大。2篇3-4分钟的对话加上4篇5-6分钟的讲座,时不时地再加个3篇作为加试。做完简直有种身体被掏空的感觉,这是对于耐力的极大考验!其次,它难度更大。托福听力涵盖天文、地理、艺术、考古、生物、心理、社会等各个学科的话题,听之前也完全看不到题目,所谓的纯盲听,听完题目才会一道道放出来,这和国内的英语听力考试形式完全不同,这无疑给考生在能力上及适应力上带了很大的考验!
因此,很多刚接触托福的考生往往都是托福听力分数普遍上不去。听不懂,听不动,不知道该听什么是大家常有的哀嚎。那么今天我们就来一起分析一下,到底听力该怎么听呢?
其实,托福听力中会有一些所谓的signpost words,也就是所谓的信号词,他们会提醒你附近要出题了,你要拿起笔记些笔记了。听力常考的信号有分类讨论、语气改变、举例类比、第一人称等12个左右。今天我们主要就举例类比来说一下听力中是怎么出题的以及我们的笔记该怎么做。
我们先来看一段文字:
Most ships in the United States Navy were not moored with steel cables; they were moored with Manila hemp ropes. Now, why was that? Well, the main reason was that steel cables degrade very, very quickly in contact with salt water. If you’ve ever been to San Francisco, you know that the Golden Gate Bridge is red. And it’s red because of the zinc paint that goes on those stainless steel cables. That, if they start at one end of the bridge and they work to the other end, by the time they finish, it’s already time to go back and start painting the beginning of the bridge again, because the bridge was built with steel cables, and steel cables can’t take the salt air unless they’re treated repeatedly with a zinc-based paint.
这篇文章讲的是manila hemp ropes在美国海军船只上的用途,并和steel cable做了比较。我们会发现,在这段的结构里,作者给了个观点:Well, the main reason was that steel cables degrade very, very quickly in contact with salt water. 说明了steel cables的缺点,紧接着马上举了个Golden Gate Bridge的例子。如果问你为什么要举这个例子?你回答得出来吗?应该不难吧?就是为了证明前面的观点呗!这就是所谓的论据证明论点呀。而听力中也会这么考!

老程说 | 托福听力就该这么听

所以答案应该选A。

这种考点就叫做例子功能的考点。在听力中如果大家有听到老师举例了,那么要做好笔记的准备,例子需要记下来,但要注意的是例子的细节是不用记的,比如刚才文字里的那后面一长串听听即可。另外要记的就是例子周围的观点句了。一般题目只会问“Why does the professor mention ……(例子)?”或者“What example does the professor use to illustrate ……(观点)?”这样是不是只要记例子对象和观点就可以了呢?
我们再来看一段文字:
OK, now I want to talk about an animal that has a fascinating set of defense mechanisms. And that’s the octopus, one of the unusual creatures that live in the sea. The octopus is prey to many species, including humans, so how does it escape its predators? Well, let me back up here a second. Anyone ever heard of Proteus?
Proteus was a God in Greek mythology who could change form. He could make himself look like a lion or a stone or a tree, anything you wanted, and he could go through a whole series of changes very quickly. Well, the octopus is the real world version of Proteus. Just like Proteus, the octopus can go through all kinds of incredible transformations.
这篇文章讲的是章鱼的伪装能力,这一段老师把章鱼和希腊神话里的神Proteus做了类比,类比在听力中可以把它和举例放在一起作为一个考点,同样我们要把类比的对象记下来,然后记下它所要证明的观点,也就是上面我标红的地方。

我们来看一下后面出的这道题目:

老程说 | 托福听力就该这么听

是不是题目问法和刚才那道题几乎一模一样?答案也很明显,选B。
举例类比的考点在听力中算是个非常高频的考点,后面大家练习的时候就可以按照这个方法去记笔记和做题了。
所以说听力虽然在放音频的时候感觉是在盲听,但其实还是有规律可循的,跟随听力的12个出题信号走,按照信号有主次地记笔记,基本上得分点都能把握住了,大家在听的时候也更有方向,甚至能猜出来后面大致会出什么题目。
今天说的这种信号应该算是我们听力应试的技巧,但归根到底应试的能力同样需要好好培养,听力的场景词及托福高频词汇还是要靠大家平时的积累。同学们千万不要只抓技巧放弃本质,就算信号听到了,知道这里要出考试重点了,但你后面的细节都听不懂不也是没用的吗?
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