写作压分后该怎么办?
安之若素 2018-10-29     17:52 来源: 原创
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托福

从今年8月25日开始,托福业内最火的事情该属“写作压分”了。根据各路反馈来看,目前我们能摸出被压分的原因可能有:1. 使用了“广而告之”的模板。综合写作是重灾区,因为以前同学们综合全部都是用模板写的,所以很多同学从Good的综写直接掉到了Fair。2. 自己写作套路单一,导致多次考试反复使用此套路,从而被认定为模板。这些各家揣摩的原因是真是假目前只能靠老师们去考试反复验证。小编认为,与其把视角集结在如何投机取巧“骗”高分,还不如踏踏实实回归托福考察的“本源”。写作考察两点:语言和说理。本身语言质量不过关,语法错误多,语言表达过于口语化或者重复,短期内想要靠被模板冲击26+是不可能的;其次写作和学生的逻辑思维以及社会认知关系很大,平时还要多注意收集“真材实料”的素材,而不是考试的时候用“家里的七大姑八大姨”现编例子,给考官留下“睁着眼睛说瞎话”的印象。那到底现在写作改如何准备呢,下面小编用2018年10月13日的托福独立写作做一个例子来谈谈具体写作应该如何准备。


写作压分后该怎么办?


为数众多,这里小编就不一一枚举了。

从观察之前考过的题目入手,有助于我们知道以后多准备哪些热门的素材。为什么小编要把2018年10月13日的题目单独挑出来说事儿呢?因为虽然2018年没有结束,但1013考的Job and Work的话题就已经多达7次,分别如下:


写作压分后该怎么办?


这个数量已经和热门话题Education持平(Education在2018年里也考了7次)。这和我们以前的认知很不一样。因为2017年Job and Work的话题只出现过3次,所以让大家一度以为Education的话题是常考话题,而Job and Work这种话题对学生党非常不友好的话题(学生党对此所知甚少)会较少出现在托福里。然而,事实证明,ETS并不喜欢别人去揣测它的出题方向,因此,同学们在准备独立写作的时候,尽量六大话题都复习到,每个话题都准备一些自己常用的素材。


以下小编补充一下独立写作共有哪六大话题:

1. Education (Students, Parents, Teachers …)

2. Entertainment (Sports, Media, Traveling …)

3. Interpersonal Relationship (Friends, Personality …)

4. Job and Work (Success, Happiness, Job Hunting …)

5. Life Style (Clothes, Food, Health …)

6. Social Problems (Environment, Technology …)

六个大话题的框架下还可以分出24个小话题。如果学有余力的同学,可以每个小话题都准备1-2个素材,这样考试的时候更加游刃有余。


写作压分后该怎么办?


那小编接下来就根据10月13日这个话题推荐几个比较好用的素材,供同学们参考。

10月13日这个独立题是一个二选一的话题,其实牵涉到两个话题:既可以选择写工作和快乐之间的关系,又可以选择写人际关系在生活中的重要性。为了契合2018年常常考Job and Work这个话题的趋势,小编这里选择前者。


Job和Happiness之间的关系第一个能让我们联想到的就是Money。因为有了工作就有了钱,有了钱就有了生活的保障。现在这个社会任何活动都需要钱。没有钱不能去想去的地方旅游,不能去想去的餐厅约会,不能买想买的衣服,住不起好房子,受不起好教育,连看病都看不起等等。很难想象,我们要是一直拿着低保,能过上好日子。
我们可以用如下的例子来支持我们的观点:
提到Happiness,小编特别喜欢给自己学生提供“马斯洛需求金字塔”这个概念。

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.

写作压分后该怎么办?

(图片来自于Google)


我们可以说马斯洛需求金字塔里Job可以帮助人们满足basic needs。如果没有满足这些需求,其他更高的需求(例如social life)就甭提了。(同学们还可以从这个角度考虑:需求金字塔里还提到“自我实现”Self-actualization,工作就是让我们实现自我最直接的途径,因此,工作不仅能满足我们的基本需求,更能让我们达到真正的快乐。)


第二个理由我们可以很容易想到,因为我们每天工作8个小时,占据了我们生活的大部分,因此,工作更影响我们是否活得开心。


这里的素材我们可以运用一些数字:假设我们每周工作40小时,如果算上双休日的话,工作只占24%,但是我们要考虑到剩下的76%里至少有23%的时间我们要用来睡觉,也就是说我们的业余生活时间至多和工作持平。但是很容易想象,我们不可能把所有业余时间花在social life上。我们不可能每天泡吧,最多双休日和闺蜜喝喝下午茶;我们也不可能24小时和别人混在一起,每个人至少都会需要一些独立空间,写写日记,看看书,看看连续剧,玩玩游戏等等。


第三个理由是工作除了和钱有关系之外,还和很多其他方面有关。

这里有一个社会调查可供大家引用:


In a recent chapter of the World Happiness Report — published annually to coincide with the United Nation’s International Day of Happiness — we look more closely at the relationship between work and happiness. The importance of having a job extends far beyond the salary attached to it. A large stream of research has shown that the non-monetary aspects of employment are also key drivers of people’s wellbeing. Social status, social relations, daily structure, and goals all exert a strong influence on people’s happiness.


当然,最后我们还是要讨论一下对方的观点。例如有些人会觉得工作时间太长反而会让人们不开心,而和朋友在一起玩儿会让他们从工作的压力解放出来。但是,我们可以发现这样的说法非常personal,因为也有人婚姻不幸福,而把工作当做避难所。而且更有可能,如果他换一份理想工作,说不定他就觉得工作也挺开心的。


最后小编提供一篇例文,供大家参考。这篇例文为了避免现在很火的“模板风云”,小编特地把让步段嵌在了说理段中供大家参考。并且为了保证语言地道,部分段落参考了网上的外刊。


Are you worried about choosing the 'perfect career'? Maybe you feel trapped in your current job because you're not doing what you love. You don't need to be in your dream job to be happy – in fact, if you make a difference at your job, you'll be happier in life. It's intrinsically human to want to feel you're adding value, whether you work at a fast food restaurant or are a brain surgeon, and knowing that your job is important to boost your self-worth, more important than your social life.


When you leave university, the chances are you're probably not too sure what to do with your life. Obviously factors such as how much money you make are going to influence your happiness – if you don't make enough to support yourself and your family, you won't be happy no matter what you're doing for a living. According to Maslow’s hierarchy, the basic need for human being is food, water, rest and security, all of which is somehow linked to money. Without the income your job brings, you won’t secure a decent meal and an ideal house. It can be hardly imagined that a man with a big family will live a carefree life with minimum wage.


Social scientists Angus Deaton and Daniel Kahneman believe that when your annual income exceeds $75,000 (that's around ?48,000), you start to notice your emotional well-being diminishing. However, the revenue is a lucky gain for newly-mint graduators, which is my own generation,so a proper job offer is still our greatest concern.


How job affects people’s happiness can also be a mere mathematical issue. Because most people work 40 hours a week, and we spend around 30% of our lives at work, 30% of our emotional well-being depends on the career choices we make. Some friends may still argue that 30% is not a high proportion to demonstrate my support for jobs. Again, I have to remind them that around 30% of a day is also spared to sleeping; thus, this ratio in our waking hours is a great deal. Moreover, most of us have to work 5 days a week, but how much time left we can spend with our family members, let alone the chance with our friends. More importantly, our limited free moments often are occupied by solo recreations, which are more common, such as writing diaries, watching dramas, and playing Switch or Xbox. It is reasonable to embrace the theory that the time we dedicate to jobs is equal to its significance to our lives.


In a recent chapter of the World Happiness Report — published annually to coincide with the United Nation’s International Day of Happiness — we look more closely at the relationship between work and happiness. The importance of having a job extends far beyond the salary attached to it. A large stream of research has shown that the non-monetary aspects of employment are also key drivers of people’s wellbeing. Social status, social relations, daily structure, and goals all exert a strong influence on people’s happiness.


Your happiness in life depends upon your happiness at work— make it a priority both inside and outside the office, every day. (531 words)


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写作压分后该怎么办?


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写作压分后该怎么办?

写作压分后该怎么办?


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